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Std10 Maths EM

# Std10 Maths EM

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02/22/2013

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1. NUMBER THEORY
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Since vedic period Indians used numbers and fractions. They also used irrationalnumbers. Greeks did not regard irrational numbers as numbers at all. But Indians treated allnumbers alike and this served them well in the invention of zero, creation of negativenumbers and development of the concept of infinity. Empty space was created and wasgranted a symbol 0 and was given a name ‘Sunya’. The most significant achievement of Indians was the creation of decimal system. The numbers 1 to 9 had been used by Indianseven before the time of the Emperor Asoka. Brahmagupta (598-665 AD) was the first tointroduce negative numbers. He applied negative numbers to represent debts. He gave therules for 4 basic operations of +, –,
×
,
÷
.
In 766 AD Indian numerals 0, 1, 2, ..., 9 werecarried by Arab mathematicians to Baghdad. Indian numerical system which was muchsuperior to the complicated Roman numerical system was readily adopted by the Europeantraders ignoring the orders of the Roman Emperor.Srinivasa Ramanujan the most celebrated Indian Mathematical genius made a significantcontribution to man’s knowledge of Mathematics, specially in the field of number theorywhich has been unique and unparalleled in the world. His famous note books containmathematical results and theorems that can fascinate and stimulate not only researchmathematicians but also school students. Ramanujan’s jottings in his note books coverBernoulli numbers, continued fractions, infinite series including divergent series, analyticaltheory of numbers, expression for numbers and so on. These jottings began with magicsquares, his first passion begun in his school days.
1.1 SEQUENCES

In earlier classes, you might have come across various patterns of numbers like1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ...1, 8, 27, 64, 125, ...These patterns are generally known as sequences. An arrangement of numbers of whichone number is designated as the first, another as second, another as third and so on is knownas a sequence. Consider the set of numbers 2,3,5,8, ... Here we find the numbers arrangedaccording to some specific rule and this helps us to find out other numbers that follow. Suchan arrangement is called a sequence. Thus we may define a sequence formally as follows:If for every positive integer n there is associated only one number an, according to somerule, then the ordered set of numbers a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, … a
n
is said to define a
sequence
. The variousnumbers occurring in a sequence are called its terms. a
n
the n
th
term is also called the general

2term of the sequence. A sequence can be described either by listing its first few terms till therule for writing down the other terms becomes clear or, by writing the algebraic formula forthe n
th
term of the sequence.For example, the sequence of odd natural numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ... can be described asa
n
= 2n – 1 where n = 1, 2, 3, 4,...The sequence 1, 8, 27, 64, 125,... can be described as a
n
= n
3
where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...
Example 1
: If
nnn
(1)a2
=
find the sequence
Solution
:
111
(1)1a22
= =
,
232323
(1)1(1)1a,a4822
= = = =

sequence is11111,,,,,...2481632

Example 2
: Let a sequence be defined by a
1
= 1, a
2
= 1, a
n
= a
n–1
+ a
n–2
for n > 2. Find thesequence.
Solution
: a
1
= 1, a
2
= 1a
n
= a
n–1
+ a
n–2
for n > 2a
3
= a
2
+ a
1
= 1 + 1 = 2a
4
= a
3
+ a
2
= 2 + 1 = 3a
5
= a
4
+ a
3
= 3 + 2 = 5
The sequence is : 1, 1, 2, 3, 5,...
Do it yourself
I. Write the first four terms of the sequences whose general terms are given below:1) n
3
1 2)3n15
3)
n
1(1)n
+

4) 2n
2
3n+1 5) (–1)
n
2
n
II. Find the indicated term in each of the following sequences.1) a
12
, a
15
if a
n
= 5n 4, 2) a
7
if a
n
n22n3
++

3) a
3
if a
n
=n(n1)2
+

4) a
10
if a
n
= 5 + 2 (n 1) 5) a
5
if a
n
= (–1)
n
n
1.1.1 Arithmetic Progression (A.P)
In this section, we shall discuss a particular type of sequences in which each term, exceptthe first, progresses in a definite manner. For example in the sequence 2, 5, 8, 11, 14... everyterm except the first is obtained by adding 3 to the preceding term. Such sequences are calledArithmetic progression.An
Arithmetic progression
is a sequence of numbers in which each term except the firstis obtained by adding a fixed number to the immediately preceding term. This fixed numberis called the common difference.

3For example: 1, 2, 3, 4,... is an A.P with C.D. = 15, 7, 9, 11,... is an A.P with C.D. = 2113,,,1,...424is an A.P with C.D.=14

102, 97, 92, 87,... is an A.P with C.D = –5
General form of an A.P. is a, a + d, a + 2d,...
with first term a, and C.D. = dThe general term or the nth term of an A.P. is
n
t=a+(n-1)d

Properties of an A.P.1. An A.P. remains an A.P if a constant quantity is added to or subtracted from eachterm of the A.P.
For example: 9, 13, 17, 21, 25,... is an A.P with C.D = 4.Add 3 to each term of the given A.P.The resulting sequence 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, ...is also an A.P with C.D = 4.Subtract 2 from each term of the given A.P.The resulting sequence 7, 11, 15, 19, 23,... is also an A.P with C.D = 4.
2. An A.P remains an A.P. if each term of the A.P is multiplied or divided by a non-zero constant quantity
.For example : 2, 4, 6, 8,... is an A.P with C.D = 2Multiply the given A.P by 5The resulting sequence 10, 20, 30, 40, ... is also an A.P. with C.D. 10Divide the given A.P by 2The resulting sequence 1, 2, 3, 4,… is also an A.P with C.D = 1
Example 3
: Is the sequence 10, 4, –2, –8, … an A.P.?
Solution
: In the given sequence we find 4 – 10 = –2 – 4 = –8 – (–2) = – 6The common difference is –6. Hence the given sequence is an A.P.
Example 4
: Is the sequence described by a
n
= 2n
2
+ 1 an A.P.?
Solution
: a
n
= 2n
2
+ 1a
1
= 2(1)
2
+ 1 = 3, a
2
= 2(2)
2
+ 1 = 9a
3
= 2(3)
2
+ 1 = 19, a
4
= 2(4)
2
+ 1 = 33The sequence is 3, 9, 19, 33, ...Here, 9 3 = 619 9 = 1033 – 19 = 14The difference is not the same.
The given sequence is not an A.P.