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Std12 Bm Vol 2

# Std12 Bm Vol 2

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Published by Aaron Merrill
Std12 Bm Vol 2
Std12 Bm Vol 2

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Published by: Aaron Merrill on Dec 13, 2009
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06/10/2011

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Many physical problems, when formulated in mathematicalforms, lead to
differential equations.
Differential equations enternaturally as models for many phenomena in economics, commerce,engineering etc. Many of these phenomena are complex in natureand very difficult to understand. But when they are described bydifferential equations, it is easy to analyse them. For example, if therate of change of cost for
x
outputs is directly proportional to thecost, then this phenomenon is described by the differential equation,
dx
C=
C, where C is the cost and
is constant. Thesolution of this differential equation isC = C
0

e
kx
where C = C
0
when
x
= 0.
6.1 FORMATION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
A
Differential Equation
is one which involves one or moreindependent variables, a dependent variable and one or more of their differential coefficients.There are two types of differential equations:(i)
Ordinary differential equations
involving only oneindependent variable and derivatives of the dependent variablewith respect to the independent variable.(ii)
Partial differential equations
which involve more than oneindependent variable and partial derivatives of the dependentvariable with respect to the independent variables.The following are a few examples for differential equations:1)
2
    
dxdy
3
dxdy
+ 2
y
=
e
x
2)
22
dx y

5
dxdy
+3
y
= 0
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
6

2
3)
23
2
1
     +
dxdy
=
22
dx y
4)
x xu
+
y yu
= 05)
22
xu
+
22
yu
+
22
zu
= 06)
22
x z
+
22
y z
=
x
+
y
(1), (2) and (3) are ordinary differential equations and(4), (5) and (6) are partial differential equations.In this chapter we shall study ordinary differential equationsonly.
6.1.1 Order and Degree of a Differential Equation
The order of the derivative of the highest order present in adifferential equation is called the
order
of the differential equation.For example, consider the differential equation
x
2
322
     
dx y
+ 3
233
     
dx y
+7
dxdy

4
y
= 0The orders of
33
dx y
,
22
dx y
and
dxdy
are 3, 2 and 1 respectively. Sothe highest order is 3. Thus the order of the differential equation is 3.The degree of the derivative of the highest order present in adifferential equation is called the
degree
of the differential equation.Here the differential coefficients should be free from the radicalsand fractional exponents.Thus the degree of
x
2
322
     
dx y
+3
233
     
dx y
+7
dxdy
4
y
= 0 is 2
Example 1Write down the order and degree of the followingdifferential equations.

3
(i)
3
    
dx dy
4
    
dx dy
+
y
= 3
e
x
(ii)
32
     
2
dx y d
+ 7
4
    
dx dy
= 3sin
x
(iii)
22
dy x d
+
a
2
x
= 0 (iv)
2
    
dx dy
3
33
dx y d
+7
22
dx y d
+4
    
dx dy
log
x
= 0(v)
2
1
     +
dx dy
= 4
x
(vi)
32
2
1
     +
dx dy
=
22
dx y d
(vii)
22
dx y d

dx dy
= 0 (viii)
2
1
x
+
=
dx d
y
Solution :
The order and the degree respectively are,(i) 1 ; 3(ii) 2 ; 3(iii) 2 ; 1(iv) 3 ; 1(v) 1 ; 2(vi) 2 ; 3(vii) 2 ; 2(viii) 1 ; 1
Note
Before ascertaining the order and degree in (v), (vi) & (vii)we made the differential coefficients free from radicals and fractionalexponents.
6.1.2 Family of curves
Sometimes a family of curves can be represented by a singleequation. In such a case the equation contains an arbitrary constant
c
. By assigning different values for
c
, we get a family of curves. Inthis case
c
is called the
parameter
or
arbitrary constant
of thefamily.
Examples
(i)
y
=
mx
represents the equation of a family of straight linesthrough the origin , where
m
is the parameter.(ii)
x
2
+
y
2
=
a
2
represents the equation of family of concentriccircles having the origin as centre, where
a
is the parameter.(iii)
y
=
mx
+
c
represents the equation of a family of straightlines in a plane, where
m
and
c
are parameters.

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