contained many proxy "Dirty Wars" between the United States and Russia (proxymeaning fought on soil other than American or Russian), and helped establish theinternational meaning and nature of terrorism. Meanwhile, Lenin and Trotsky startedup a Red Terror inside Russia from 1918-1923 with a vast gulag of concentration camps,which was carried on by Stalin's purges in the mid-1930s with the Great Terror. TheUnited States, for its part, engaged in a "Red Scare" roundup of suspected anarchistsand communists. Terrorism sponsored abroad and at home went hand in hand duringthe Cold War.The next phase in the history of terrorism involved nationalism and the desire to rid acountry of colonial rule. The Macedonian insurgency (1893-1903) against the TurkishOttoman Empire became the first anti-colonial group in modern history tosystematically wage guerilla warfare, avoid conventional battle, occupy towns andvillages, engage in propaganda, and use terrorism to gain control. Nationalist terrorismprovided the notion that "there are no innocent non-combatants" since it was typicalwith this type of terrorism for many more non-combatants to be killed thancombatants. Perhaps the most well-known figure in the history of nationalist terrorismis Colonel T.E. Lawrence ("of Arabia"), who organized the 1916-1918 insurgency byArab irregulars against Ottoman Turks. Undoubtedly, another major figure was MaoZedong, whose peasant army brought down what was left of imperial Manchu China in1949 at the start of the Cultural Revolution. Mao's victory and guerrilla warfare tacticsinspired revolutionaries and terrorists throughout the Third World, as did Fidel Castroand Che Guevara during the Cuban Revolution of 1959. In fact,
it was in Latin Americawhere terrorism became most closely tied to anti-colonialism
. Carlos Marighella (1930-1971) wrote the Latin American handbook on terrorism (
), claiming it required adherence to a "higher morality", that oneman's terrorist is another man's liberator. (The phrase "one person's terrorist isanother person's freedom fighter" has unknown origins.) In other parts of the world,different anti-colonial patterns emerged, such as those associated with the non-terroristand non-violent tactics of Mahatma Gandhi. However, in Africa, terrorist tactics weresuccessfully used to achieve the independence of states such as Kenya and Algeria.
It was nationalist terrorism which popularized the phrase "freedom fighter."
Another period of time that brought a different meaning to terrorism was the WorldWar II period with Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Here, the word "terrorism"became to be associated with totalitarian regimes and police states. For example, whenHitler's minister of the Interior, Hermann Goering said in 1933 that "I will not becrippled by judicial thinking. I don't have to worry about justice. I shall use the powerof the police to the utmost," this is pretty much an announcement of a police state thatengages in terrorism against its own citizens. Words used to describe this kind of terrorism include state terrorism, state-imposed terrorism, or state-directed terrorism.It became typical of dictatorships in many places without Fascist or Nazi influence,places like Argentina, Chile, Greece, El Salvador, Guatemala, Colombia, and Peru,because "death squads" or "terror squads" (usually off-duty policemen) roamed aboutthe countryside intimidating and killing political opponents, human rights workers,student and labor leaders, journalists, and others.The year 1968 marked a radical shift in Middle East politics when Palestinian groupsaccomplished a streak of notable skyjackings. It could easily be argued that terrorismin the Middle East had earlier benchmarks, and indeed certain religious aspects of it do,