Nikkai QM82 800W DC/AC Inverter
(also marketed as Genius, SkyTronic and PowerUp)
This is a report of the repair of an inverter purchased on ebay, having been described as “faulty -the inverter suddenly stopped working. It just died”. Upon opening the case, it was obvious that theunit had major areas of burning to the PCB, one chip had exploded, and there were several burnedresistors. Dismantling the unit revealed that there had been a couple of replacement componentsfitted sometime, whether before or after the fire was not clear.A search on the net showed that there was little or no information available, but a plea on thenewsgroup
got the component values for those which were too burned toidentify, and the type for the exploded chip.Because of the extent of the fault, I decided that a circuit diagram (schematic) was required, so thenext few days were spent carefully tracing the circuit and drawing it up.
2. Circuit description
The inverter converts 12V DC from a vehicle or leisure lead-acid battery to 230-240V AC suitablefor a range of mains-powered appliances in Europe. It uses a two-stage converter to keep efficiencyup (quoted at 85 - 90%) and parts weight down (3.15Kgs). The first stage is a 12V SMPS drivingthe transformer primaries at high frequency, and the second stage takes the high voltage from thetransformers, rectifies it and chops that at 50Hz to drive the mains voltage output. An additionallow-power secondary stage drives the 50Hz chopper and pulse-shaper through a 12V regulator.
2.1 Low-voltage stage
The 12V battery voltage is supplied through a set of parallel-coupled 30A fuses directly to thecentre-tapped primaries of the six series-connected high-frequency transformers. The start andfinish of the primary windings are connected in parallel to six RFP50N power MosFETs per side(again, in parallel - to increase the current handling and decrease the RDS
).The 12V supply is also connected, via the front-panel on/off switch, to the KA3525A switch-modecontrol chip and to the cooling fan.The SMPS oscillator runs at about 4.5kHz and directly drives the output MosFETs (via the usualgate-blocking resistors) from the push-pull outputs on pins 11 and 14. Error control is provided byan LM393 op-amp, which is driven from the high-voltage side via a TLP734 opto-isolator.Ten 2200
F electrolytic smoothing capacitors are placed on the 12V battery supply to iron out anystray AC component. All of the timing capacitors are low-tolerance ceramic chip – there seems to be no requirement for precision here!