Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
16Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Nikkai 800W Inverter Repair Report

Nikkai 800W Inverter Repair Report

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,900 |Likes:
Published by Richard Smith
This is a report of the repair of an inverter purchased on ebay, having been described as “faulty -
the inverter suddenly stopped working. It just died”. Upon opening the case, it was obvious that the
unit had major areas of burning to the PCB, one chip had exploded, and there were several burned
resistors. Dismantling the unit revealed that there had been a couple of replacement components
fitted sometime, whether before or after the fire was not clear.
This is a report of the repair of an inverter purchased on ebay, having been described as “faulty -
the inverter suddenly stopped working. It just died”. Upon opening the case, it was obvious that the
unit had major areas of burning to the PCB, one chip had exploded, and there were several burned
resistors. Dismantling the unit revealed that there had been a couple of replacement components
fitted sometime, whether before or after the fire was not clear.

More info:

Published by: Richard Smith on Dec 14, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/21/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Nikkai QM82 800W DC/AC Inverter 
(also marketed as Genius, SkyTronic and PowerUp)
1. Overview
This is a report of the repair of an inverter purchased on ebay, having been described as “faulty -the inverter suddenly stopped working. It just died”. Upon opening the case, it was obvious that theunit had major areas of burning to the PCB, one chip had exploded, and there were several burnedresistors. Dismantling the unit revealed that there had been a couple of replacement componentsfitted sometime, whether before or after the fire was not clear.A search on the net showed that there was little or no information available, but a plea on thenewsgroup
 sci.electronics.repair 
got the component values for those which were too burned toidentify, and the type for the exploded chip.Because of the extent of the fault, I decided that a circuit diagram (schematic) was required, so thenext few days were spent carefully tracing the circuit and drawing it up.
2. Circuit description
The inverter converts 12V DC from a vehicle or leisure lead-acid battery to 230-240V AC suitablefor a range of mains-powered appliances in Europe. It uses a two-stage converter to keep efficiencyup (quoted at 85 - 90%) and parts weight down (3.15Kgs). The first stage is a 12V SMPS drivingthe transformer primaries at high frequency, and the second stage takes the high voltage from thetransformers, rectifies it and chops that at 50Hz to drive the mains voltage output. An additionallow-power secondary stage drives the 50Hz chopper and pulse-shaper through a 12V regulator.
2.1 Low-voltage stage
The 12V battery voltage is supplied through a set of parallel-coupled 30A fuses directly to thecentre-tapped primaries of the six series-connected high-frequency transformers. The start andfinish of the primary windings are connected in parallel to six RFP50N power MosFETs per side(again, in parallel - to increase the current handling and decrease the RDS
ON
).The 12V supply is also connected, via the front-panel on/off switch, to the KA3525A switch-modecontrol chip and to the cooling fan.The SMPS oscillator runs at about 4.5kHz and directly drives the output MosFETs (via the usualgate-blocking resistors) from the push-pull outputs on pins 11 and 14. Error control is provided byan LM393 op-amp, which is driven from the high-voltage side via a TLP734 opto-isolator.Ten 2200
µ
F electrolytic smoothing capacitors are placed on the 12V battery supply to iron out anystray AC component. All of the timing capacitors are low-tolerance ceramic chip – there seems to be no requirement for precision here!
 
2.2 High-voltage stage
 BE WARNED: This stage runs at approximately 300V DC – and accidentally touching a live part could be lethal. There are a couple of big capacitors which can store this voltage for up to anhour or more – so be very careful! If you are unsure about anything, don't touch it, and call aqualified engineer to sort it out!!
Here's where it all starts to get a big more interesting! The output of the high-frequencytransformers is bridge-rectified by four fast diodes (D1 – D4) and smoothed by two 330
µ
Fcapacitors. The resulting 300V DC is applied directly to a bridge switching output circuitcomprising four high-power MosFETs. These are switched to provide a 50Hz AC waveform at 230-240V rms which is LC filtered by L1 and C3.Output current is measured as a voltage drop across the source resistors (R29, R74 & R75) – at fullload, the source terminals of the lower two MosFETs will be at around 1V above ground. Thisvoltage is applied to an LM393 op-amp to trigger the overload shutdown.
2.3 50Hz pulse generator 
AC from a low-voltage secondary winding on the transformers is rectified by four diodes (D5 – D8)and connected to a 7812 linear voltage regulator to provide the 12V supply for the 50Hz oscillator and driver components. Running the low-frequency circuit in this way ensures that the output onlyruns when the input SMPS is running effectively.U4 is a standard 556 dual oscillator/timer arranged to provide a 50Hz pulse at the base of Q1. Thefrequency is adjustable with VR1. This pulse is applied to CMOS logic gates to generate the gatedrives for the output MosFETS. The output pulse shape is adjusted by a bleed through R33 from thehigh-voltage DC to maintain the correct AC output voltage.
3. Fault investigation
3.1 Visual before dismantling 
Taking the lid off the case, I saw several areas of black carbon, concentrated around the four largest power devices and around four smaller power transistors. There were several burned resistors, andone IC which had exploded. The fuses were intact. An electrolytic capacitor had burst and anadjacent power component had broken apart. There were several burned bits of PCB track.After dismantling the unit, which involves removing all the screws securing the heatsinks to thecase and sliding the PCB out of the aluminium housing, a closer examination of the PCB revealedthat one chip had been replaced before and that there were a couple more breaks to the copper printon the underside.At this stage, a circuit diagram was needed, and since searches on the 'net were fruitless, I settleddown to draw one out. Several days passed.
 
3.2 Finding the burnt-out parts
A plea on the newsgroup (
 sci.electronics.repair 
) for someone who was prepared to take the cover off another inverter and report back on the part numbers and resistor values was successful – I nowhad somewhere to start! Searches on the 'net gained data sheets for all of the semiconductors(except the four smaller power transistors – which are drivers for the output MosFETs) and thecircuit diagram began to take shape. The result can be seen on this web site in two JPG files. Oncethe diagrams were to hand I could proceed to actually fixing the inverter.
3.3 Replacing parts and testing 
My initial thoughts about the failure sequence were that since the 12V smoothing cap had burst, andthe 7812 regulator had cracked, this might be to origin of the whole thing. It's often true thatelectrolytics, subject to high temperatures at close to their maximum ripple current, can failcatastrophically and take associated components with them. In this case, a failure of the 12Vregulator seemed to have resulted, and the 50Hz pulse generator circuits had suffered – includingone CMOS chip that had literally exploded. Having a failed driver, the output MosFETs could have been switched on and shunted the 300V to ground – a lethal result for those devices!I started with the SMPS controller (U3), since that had already been replaced and it was drivendirectly from the 12V battery. Coupling up the scope and a temporary 12V power supply directly toU3, I could see the output waveform happily driving the MosFET gates and the cooling fan waswhirring away. Applying the 12V supply to the MosFETs started the voltage transformation for afew seconds, then a protection circuit activated and shut down the controller. Repeated short burstsof 12V to the SMPS controller got the HV capacitors (C28, C29) nicely charged to about 300 volts,so I knew the transformers were okay. Similarly acceptable results were measured at the input of Q14 for 12V regulated supply.I then replaced the 7812 regulator (Q14) and fitted a new, higher-rated smoothing capacitor at C29.Further testing with the switching controller confirmed that the regulated 12V DC supply wasworking properly. Next, by using the 12V power supply, I checked the 556 timer (U4) – which wasn't doing much atall. This tended to confirm my original suspicion that the failure of the 12V regulator had mis-treated all the connected semiconductors. Replacing the 556 brought that to life, and replacing thevarious CMOS pulse-shaping chips (U1 & U2 on the sub-board, plus U8 & U9) got all that sectionworking. I now had satisfactory signals available at the base of the driver transistors Q17 - Q20.While waiting for some parts to arrive, I tested a few ancillary sections of the circuit. The low-voltage alarm around U2A was okay and sounded the buzzer at about 10.5 volts. The low-voltageshut-down at U2B was also working, and stopped the SMPS at about 10 volts input.With a 100W 240V light bulb soldered across the 300V DC output, to provide some sort of load andkeep the voltage within acceptable limits, I checked the temperature sensor – by simply sticking asoldering iron into the mounting hole of the sensor tab! This had no effect, but the thermistor testedokay, as did the driver transistor Q16. I replaced the opto-isolator, U6, and the temperature circuitworked properly.

Activity (16)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
elfrascos liked this
Khemraz liked this
slofrahman9381 liked this
Nikhil Saraogi liked this
smartbf liked this
gofilev liked this
electel liked this
electel liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->