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STUDY NOTES-The Urinary System

STUDY NOTES-The Urinary System

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Published by: peterneil on Dec 14, 2009
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STUDY NOTESThe urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and the urethraKidneys alsoRegulate blood volume by excreting or conserving water Regulate electrolyte content of blood by excreting or conserving mineralsRegulate acid-base balance of by excreting or conserving H
ions or HCO
Are located in the upper abdominal cavity on either side of the spineUpper part rests on the diaphragmAre surrounded by adipose tissueProtectionThe renal artery enters each kidney and the renal vein leaves each kidneyThe artery is a branch of the abdominal aortaThe ureter carries urine from the kidney to the bladder 
Internal Structure of the Kidney 
Renal CortexOuter layer of tissueMade up of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubulesRenal MedullaInner layer of tissueMade up of Loops of Henle and collecting tubulesRenal PelvisCavity formed by enlargement of the ureter 
The Nephron
Is the structural and functional unit of the kidney
Renal Corpuscle
Is made up of a glomerulus surrounded by Bowman
s capsuleThe glomerulus is a network of capillaries that comes from the afferent arteriole and empties into anefferent arterioleBowman
s capsule is the expanded end of the renal tubule
Renal Tubule
Is made up of the proximate convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubuleThe distal convoluted tubules of various nephrons empty into a collecting tubuleAll parts of the renal tubule are surrounded by the peritubular capillaries, which form from the efferentarteriole
Blood Vessels of the Kidney 
The course of blood flow through the kidney is an crucial part of the process of urine formationBlood flows from the abdominal aorta
renal artery Cafferent arterioles
efferentarteriole-------peritubular capillaries
renal vein----inferior vena cave ----heart
Involves three major processesGlomerular filtration(renal corpuscle), tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion( renal tubules)
Glomerular Filtration
Blood is forced under great pressure into the glomerulus and plasma, dissolved substances, and smallproteins are forced out of the glomeruli and into Bowman=s capsulenow called renal filtrateFiltrate like blood except has less protein and no blood cells
Tubular Reabsorption
Takes place from the renal tubules into the peritubular capillaries
Tubular Secretion
Changes the composition of urine
Substances are actively secreted from the blood into the peritubular capillaries into the filtrate in the renaltubulesWaste products such as ammonia, creatinine, and metabolic products of medications may be excreted inthe urineH
may be secreted by the tubules to help maintain normal pH of the blood
Hormones that Influence Reabsorption of Water 
Secreted by adrenal cortex in response to high levels of K in blood and low levels of Na, or a decrease inblood pressureWhen Na
is reabsorbed water followshelps maintain blood pressure
 Atrial Natriuretic Hormone(ANH)
Secreted by atria of heart when stretched by high blood pressure or increased blood volume in too so bothare excretedLowers blood volume or blood pressure
 Antidiuretic Hormone or ADH 
Released by the posterior pituitary gland when amount of water in body decreasesThe distal convoluted tubules become permeable to water and water is reabsorbed back into the bloodHelps maintain normal blood volume and blood pressureAlso helps produce a concentrated urine necessary to prevent too much water lost while excreting toxicmaterialsIf the amount of water in the body increases, the secretion of ADH decreases and the kidneys absorb lesswater.
Kidneys are organs most responsible for maintaining pH of blood
Secretion of erythropoietin
Secreted when blood oxygen levels decreaseStimulates the bone marrow to increase rate of RBC productionMore RBC
s increase the amount of oxygen in the blood
Go from kidneys to bladder prevents the backflow of urine
Urinary Bladder 
Is a muscular sac behind the pubic bonesAct as a reservoir for urine
Carries urine from bladder to outside of body
The Urination Reflex 
Also called micturition or voiding
Have physical and chemical aspects
Normal output over 24 hours is 1 to 2 litersCan be altered by sweating, diarrhea, excessive fluid intake, and consumption of alcohol
Usually a straw or amber color Freshly voided urine is clear 
Specific Gravity 
Normally 1.010 to 1.025Is a measure of the dissolved materials in urineIf you have been sweating, you will have less urine and a higher specific gravityIndicates the concentrating ability of the kidneys
Between 4.6 - 8.0 with average of 6.0

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