The American, British, Canadian and Australian (ABCA) Armies Medical Interoperability Handbook (MIH) was developed and is maintained by the ABCA Quadripartite Working Group on HealthService Support (QWG HSS).The ABCA program is the primary interoperability forum involving the armies of the United States,United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. New Zealand has observer status. QWG HSS is theworking group within the ABCA program that addresses HSS issues. The working group comprisesHSS representatives of participating armies and its principal activity involves the progression of standardization tasks on HSS issues identified and prioritized by armies. Standardization is achievedthrough the development and maintenance of Quadripartite Standardization Agreements (QSTAGs)and Quadripartite Advisory Publications (QAPs). Other ABCA activities include Special WorkingParties (SWPs) and Information Exchange Groups (IEGs) on specific HSS issues, the maintenanceof a Standardization List (STANLIST) and Reciprocal Use of Material (RUM) loans. In addition,ABCA exercises are conducted on a regular basis to practice and evaluate standardization andinteroperability among participating armies.QWG HSS meets annually to progress standardization tasks and discuss key HSS interoperabilityissues. Each meeting includes a review of the MIH. Users of the MIH in participating armies areencouraged to send comments and suggestions for amendment to their QWG HSS National Point of Contact (NPOC).The custodian of the MIH is the U.S. Army Medical Department Center and School.