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The Physics of Plasmas

The Physics of Plasmas

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Published by: amrelshawarby on Dec 15, 2009
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The Physics of Plasmas
Richard Fitzpatrick
1
Professor of PhysicsThe University of Texas at Austin
1
In association with R.D. Hazeltine and F.L. Waelbroeck.
 
Contents
1.1 Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2 What is Plasma?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.3 Brief History of Plasma Physics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.4 Basic Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.5 Plasma Frequenc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.6 Debye Shielding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.7 Plasma Parameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141.8 Collisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.9 Magnetized Plasmas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.10 Plasma Beta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212.2 Motion in Uniform Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.3 Method of Averaging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.4 Guiding Centre Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.5 Magnetic Drifts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.6 Invariance of Magnetic Moment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322.7 Poincar´e Invariants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332.8 Adiabatic Invariants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.9 Magnetic Mirrors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352.10 Van Allen Radiation Belts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382.11 Ring Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432.12 Second Adiabatic Invariant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462.13 Third Adiabatic Invariant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482.14 Motion in Oscillating Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533.2 Moments of the Distribution Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563.3 Moments of the Collision Operator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583.4 Moments of the Kinetic Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
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3.5 Fluid Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633.6 Entropy Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643.7 Fluid Closure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653.8 Braginskii Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723.9 Normalization of the Braginskii Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853.10 Cold-Plasma Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 933.11 MHD Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 953.12 Drift Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 973.13 Closure in Collisionless Magnetized Plasmas. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003.14 Langmuir Sheaths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1114.2 Plane Waves in a Homogeneous Plasma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1114.3 Cold-Plasma Dielectric Permittivit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1134.4 Cold-Plasma Dispersion Relation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1164.5 Polarization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1184.6 Cutoff and Resonance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194.7 Waves in an Unmagnetized Plasma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204.8 Low-Frequency Wave Propagation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1224.9 Parallel Wave Propagation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1254.10 Perpendicular Wave Propagation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1304.11 Wave Propagation Through Inhomogeneous Plasmas. . . . . . . . 1334.12 Cutoffs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1394.13 Resonances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414.14 Resonant Layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1454.15 Collisional Damping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1464.16 Pulse Propagation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1484.17 Ray Tracing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1524.18 Radio Wave Propagation Through the Ionosphere. . . . . . . . . . 155
5.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1585.2 Magnetic Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1605.3 Flux Freezing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
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