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sqqs1013-chp04

# sqqs1013-chp04

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03/12/2013

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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics
DISTRIBUTION
DISTRIBUTION
OF RANDOM
OF RANDOM
VARIABLES
VARIABLES
4.1 RANDOM VARIABLE
Definition:
A random variable is avar iable whose value is determined by the
outcome of a random experiment
\u2022Supposed one family is randomly selected from the population. The process of
random selection is called random or chance experiment.
\u2022LetX be the number of vehicles owned by the selected family (0, 1, 2, \u2026, n).
Therefore the first column represents five possible values (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) of
vehicles owned by the selected family.
\u2022This table shows that 30 families do not have vehicle, 470 families have
1 vehicle, 850 families have 2 vehicles, 490 families have 3 vehicles and
160 families have 4 vehicles.
\u2022In general, a random variable is denoted byX orY.
Chapter 4: Distribution of Random Variables
1
QQS1013 Elementary Statistics
4.2 DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLE
Definition:
A random variable that assumes countable values is called
discrete random variable.
\u2022
Number of houses sold by a developer in a given month.
\u2022
Number of cars rented at a rental shop during a given month.
\u2022
Number of report received at the police station on a given day.
\u2022
Number of fish caught on a fishing trip.
4.2 PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF A DISCRETE RANDOM
VARIABLE
Definition:
The probability distribution of a discrete random variable lists
all the possible values that the random variable can assume and
their corresponding probabilities.
\u2022It is used to represent populations.
\u2022
The probability distribution can be presented in the form of a
mathematical formula, a table or a graph.
Consider the table below. LetX be the number of vehicles owned by a randomly
selected family. Write the probability distribution ofX and graph for the data.
Chapter 4: Distribution of Random Variables
2
Example
of
Discrete
Random Variables
Exampl
e1
QQS1013 Elementary Statistics
Solution:
X
0
1
2
3
4
P(x)
0.015
0.235
0.425
0.245
0.080
During
the
summer months, a rental agency keeps track of the number of cars it rents each day
during a period of 90 daysandX denot es the number of cars rented per day .
Construct a probability distribution and graph for the data.
X
Number of days
0
45
1
30
2
15
Total
90
Solution:
When
,
Chapter 4: Distribution of Random Variables
3
P(x)
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.25
0.20
0
1
2
X
3
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
4
Exampl
e2