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Demogaphy of China

Demogaphy of China

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Published by: wildsaab on Dec 16, 2009
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Demographics of the People's Republic of China
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The
demographics of the People'sRepublic of China
are characterized by alarge population with a relatively smallyouth cohort, which is partially a result of the People's Republic of China's one-child policy. The population policiesimplemented in China since 1979 havehelped to prevent an extra 400 millionbirths. Others believe this figure is greatlyexaggerated and that the true impact iscloser to 50–60 million.
[1]
 Today, China's population is over 1,3billion, the largest in the world. However,according to some estimates, it could bemuch higher (1,5 to 2 billion).
[2][3]
Chinaplans to conduct its sixth nationalpopulation census in 2010.
[4]
 
Demographics of People's Republic of China
 Population of China, 1961–2006
Population:
1,321,000,000 (2007 est.)(rounded)
Growth rate:
0.629% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
13.71 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
7.03 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Life expectancy:
73.18 years (2008 est.)
–male:
71.37 years (2008 est.)
–female:
75.18 years (2008 est.)
Fertility rate:
1.77 children born/woman (2008)
Age structure:0-14 years:
20.1% (male 142,085,665/female125,300,391) (2008 est.)
15-64 years:
71.9% (male 491,513,378/female465,020,030) (2008 est.)
65-over:
8% (male 50,652,480/female 55,472,661)(2008 est.)
Sex ratio:At birth:
1.11 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Under 15:
1.13 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
15-64 years:
1.06 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
65-over:
0.91 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Nationality:Nationality:
noun
: Chinese
adjective
: Chinese
Major ethnic:
Han Chinese
Minor ethnic:
Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uyghurs,Yi, Tujia, Mongols, Tibetan, Buyei,Dong, Yao, Korean, Bai, Hani, Li, Kazak,Dai, She, Lisu, Gelao, Lahu, Dongxiang,Va, Sui, Nakhi, Qiang, Tu, Xibe, Mulao,Kyrgyz, Daur, Jingpo, Salar, Blang,Maonan, Tajik, Pumi, Achang, Nu,Ewenki, Gin, Jino, De'ang, Uzbeks,Russian, Yugur, Bonan, Monba, Oroqen,Derung, Tatars, Hezhen, Lhoba, Gaoshan
Language:
 
Spoken:
Wu (Shanghainese), Yue (Cantonese),Min (Minnan, Mindong, others), Xiang,Gan, Hakka, various Mandarin dialectsand Patuá
Contents
1 History
1.1 Census
1.2 Fertility and mortality
2 CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
2.1 Population
2.1.1 Historicalpopulation
2.1.2 Populationprojection
2.2 Population density
2.3 Urban-rural ratio
2.4 Age structure
2.4.1 Furtherbreakdown of agedistribution
2.4.2 Median age
2.5 Population growth rate
2.6 Birth rate
2.7 Death rate
2.8 Net migration rate
2.9 Sex distribution
2.10 Sex ratio
2.11 Infant mortality rateSeite 1 von 18Demographics of the People's Republic of China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSeite 1 von 18Demographics of the People's Republic of China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
History
Census
The People's Republic of China conducted censuses in 1953, 1964, and 1982. In 1987 thegovernment announced that the fourth national census would take place in 1990 and that there wouldbe one every ten years thereafter. The 1982 census, which reported a total population of 1,008,180,738, is generally accepted as significantly more reliable, accurate, and thorough than theprevious two. Various international organizations eagerly assisted the Chinese in conducting the1982 census, including the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, which donated US$15.6million for the preparation and execution of the census.China has been the world's most populous nation for many centuries. When China took its first post-1949 census in 1953, the population stood at 582 million; by the fifth census in 2000, the populationhad more than doubled, reaching 1.2 billion.In the 1920s and 1930s, Chinese interest in social programs through reproductive control, includingeugenics, intensified. Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Chinese government introduced, with varyingdegrees of success, a number of family planning, or population control, campaigns and programs.China’s fast-growing population was a major policy matter for its leaders in the mid-twentieth
2.12 Child mortality
2.13 Life expectancy atbirth
2.14 Total fertility rate
2.15 Marriage and divorce
2.16 Literacy rate
2.17 Educational attainment
2.18 Religious affiliation
2.19 Major cities
2.20 Households
2.21 HIV
2.22 Causes of death
2.23 Income
2.24 Working life
2.25 Access to services
2.26 Social participation
2.27 Social deviance
2.28 Material wellbeing
2.29 Household income andexpenditure
2.30 Employment
3 Population control
4 Population density anddistribution
5 Migration
6 Urbanization
7 Ethnic groups
8 Languages
9 Religions
10 See also
11 References
12 External linksSeite 2 von 18Demographics of the People's Republic of China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSeite 2 von 18Demographics of the People's Republic of China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
century, so that in the early 1970s, the government implemented the stringent one-child policy(publicly announced in 1979). Under this policy, which had different guidelines for nationalminorities, married couples were officially permitted only one child. As a result of the policy, Chinasuccessfully achieved its goal of a more stable and much-reduced fertility rate; in 1971 women hadan average of 5.4 children versus an estimated 1.7 children in 2004. Enforcement of the program,however, varied considerably from place to place, depending on the vigilance of local populationcontrol workers.In 1982 China conducted its first population census since 1964. It was by far the most thorough andaccurate census taken since 1949 and confirmed that China was a nation of more than 1 billionpeople, or about one-fifth of the world's population. The census provided demographers with a set of data on China's age-sex structure, fertility and mortality rates, and population density anddistribution. Information was also gathered on minority ethnic groups, urban population, and maritalstatus. For the first time since the People's Republic of China was founded, demographers hadreliable information on the size and composition of the Chinese work force. The nation beganpreparing for the 1982 census in late 1976. Chinese census workers were sent to the United Statesand Japan to study modern census-taking techniques and automation. Computers were installed inevery provincial-level unit except Xizang and were connected to a central processing system in theBeijing headquarters of the State Statistical Bureau. Pretests and smallscale trial runs were conductedand checked for accuracy between 1980 and 1981 in twenty-four provincial-level units. Censusstations were opened in rural production brigades and urban neighborhoods. Beginning 1 July 1982,each household sent a representative to a census station to be enumerated. The census required abouta month to complete and employed approximately 5 million census takers.The 1982 census collected data in nineteen demographic categories relating to individuals andhouseholds. The thirteen areas concerning individuals were name, relationship to head of household,sex, age, nationality, registration status, educational level, profession, occupation, status of nonworking persons, marital status, number of children born and still living, and number of births in1981. The six items pertaining to households were type (domestic or collective), serial number,number of persons, number of births in 1981, number of deaths in 1981, and number of registeredpersons absent for more than one year. Information was gathered in a number of important areas forwhich previous data were either extremely inaccurate or simply nonexistent, including fertility,marital status, urban population, minority ethnic groups, sex composition, age distribution, andemployment and unemployment.A fundamental anomaly in the 1982 statistics was noted by some Western analysts. They pointed outthat although the birth and death rates recorded by the census and those recorded through thehousehold registration system were different, the two systems arrived at similar population totals.The discrepancies in the vital rates were the result of the underreporting of both births and deaths tothe authorities under the registration system; families would not report some births because of theone-child policy and would not report some deaths so as to hold on to the rations of the deceased.Nevertheless, the 1982 census was a watershed for both Chinese and world demographics. After aneighteen-year gap, population specialists were given a wealth of reliable, up-to-date figures on whichto reconstruct past demographic patterns, measure current population conditions, and predict futurepopulation trends. For example, Chinese and foreign demographers used the 1982 census age-sexstructure as the base population for forecasting and making assumptions about future fertility trends.The data on age-specific fertility and mortality rates provided the necessary base-line information formaking population projections. The census data also were useful for estimating future manpowerpotential, consumer needs, and utility, energy, and health-service requirements. The suddenabundance of demographic data helped population specialists immeasurably in their efforts toestimate world population. Previously, there had been no accurate information on these 21 percent of the Earth's inhabitants. Demographers who had been conducting research on global populationwithout accurate data on the Chinese fifth of the world's population were particularly thankful for the1982 breakthrough census.Seite 3 von 18Demographics of the People's Republic of China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSeite 3 von 18Demographics of the People's Republic of China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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