emissions by international aviation and shipping, but arein addition to the industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons, orCFCs, which are dealt with under the 1987 MontrealProtocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
There are five principle concepts of the KyotoProtocol (as stated in the Protocol):
i) To reduce the emissions of the greenhouse gases by allcountries who have committed to the agreement.ii) To prepare policies and find out means to reducegreenhouse gases, and also to implement them.iii) To increase absorption of these hazardous gases( through geosequestration and biosequestration) anduse all possible means available such as jointimplementation, clean development mechanism andemission trading; also by rewarding nations doing betterin these areas.iv) To minimize the impact on the developing nations byestablishing an adaptation fund for climate change.v) Accounting, reporting and reviewing to ensure theintegrity of the Protocol so that people may not misusethe termsA market-based mechanism has been devised in theKyoto Protocol as means of achieving the targets for allthe participating countries. The mechanism includesEmissions trading – known as “the carbon market”, Cleandevelopment mechanism (CDM) and Jointimplementation (JI). These mechanisms help stimulategreen investment and help parties meet their emissiontargets in a cost-effective way.According to scientists, in over 800,000 years, the