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Basics of AC Drives 3

Basics of AC Drives 3

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Published by: kodandaram on Dec 16, 2009
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Control Modes
The MICROMASTER has four modes of operation:Linear voltage/frequency (410, 420, 440)Quadratic voltage/frequency (410, 420, 440)Flux Current Control (FCC) (440)Sensorless vector frequency control (440)Closed loop vector control (440 with encoder option card)
Linear Voltage/Frequency
The MICROMASTER can operate utilizing a standard V/Hzcurve. Using a 460 VAC, 60 Hz motor as an example, constantvolts per hertz is supplied to the motor at any frequencybetween 0 and 60 Hz. This is the simplest type of control and issuitable for general purpose applications.
Quadratic Operation
A second mode of operation is referred to as a quadraticvoltage/frequency curve. This mode provides a V/Hz curve thatmatches the torque requirements of simple fan and pumpapplications.
Flux Current Control
Stator current (I
) is made up of active and reactive current.The reactive current component of stator current produces therotating magnetic field. The active current produces work. Motornameplate data is entered into the drive. The drive estimatesmotor magnetic flux based on the measured reactive statorcurrent and the entered nameplate data. Proprietary internalcomputer algorithms attempt to keep the estimated magneticflux constant.If the motor nameplate information has been correctly enteredand the drive properly set up, the flux current control modewill usually provide better dynamic performance than simpleV/Hz control. Flux current control automatically adapts the driveoutput to the load. The motor is always operated at optimumefficiency. Speed remains reliably constant even under varyingload conditions.
Sensorless Vector Control
In the past, the dynamic response of a DC motor was generallyconsidered significantly better than an AC motor. An AC motor,however, is less expensive and requires less maintenancethan a DC motor. Using a complex mathematical motor modeland proprietary internal computer algorithms vector control isable to exert the necessary control over an AC motor so thatits performance is equal to that of a DC motor. Vector control,flux vector, and field orientation are terms that describe thisspecialized control technique of AC drives.Vector control systems facilitate independent control of fluxproducing and torque producing elements in an inductionmotor. Sensorless vector control calculates rotor speed basedon the motor model, calculated CEMF, inverter output voltage,and inverter output current. This results in improved dynamicperformance compared to other control methods.When motor speed is calculated at very low speeds, based on asmall CEMF and known corrections for stator resistance, slightvariations in stator resistance and other parameters will have aneffect on speed calculation. This makes vector control without atachometer impractical below a few hertz.
59Siemens sensorless vector control drives do operate smoothlyto low speed. Sensorless vector control drives will producefull torque below a few hertz, and 150% or more torque at allspeeds.There are some complicated techniques used to accomplishthis low speed torque with sensorless vector control. Expertsetup and commissioning may be required to achieve desiredoperation at low speed.Parameters for static torque, flux adaptation, slip compensation,and other concepts are complex and beyond the scope of thiscourse.
Single-Quadrant Operation
In the speed-torque chart there are four quadrants according todirection of rotation and direction of torque. A single-quadrantdrive operates only in quadrants I or III (shaded area). QuadrantI is forward motoring or driving (CW). Quadrant III is reversemotoring or driving (CCW). Reverse motoring is achieved byreversing the direction of the rotating magnetic field. Motortorque is developed in the positive direction to drive theconnected load at a desired speed (N). This is similar to driving acar forward on a flat surface from standstill to a desired speed.It takes more forward or motoring torque to accelerate the carfrom zero to the desired speed. Once the car has reached thedesired speed your foot can be let off the accelerator a little.When the car comes to an incline a little more gas, controlledby the accelerator, maintains speed.

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