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Calculus E-Book

# Calculus E-Book

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05/08/2014

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CALCULUS I
Paul Dawkins

Calculus I© 2007 Paul Dawkins i http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx

Preface ........................................................................................................................................... iii

Outline ........................................................................................................................................... iv

Review............................................................................................................................................. 2

Introduction
.............................................................................................................................................. 2

Review : Functions
................................................................................................................................... 4

Review : Inverse Functions
.................................................................................................................... 10

Review : Trig Functions
......................................................................................................................... 17

Review : Solving Trig Equations
............................................................................................................ 24

Review : Solving Trig Equations with Calculators, Part I
.................................................................... 33

Review : Solving Trig Equations with Calculators, Part II
................................................................... 44

Review : Exponential Functions
............................................................................................................ 49

Review : Logarithm Functions
............................................................................................................... 52

Review : Exponential and Logarithm Equations
.................................................................................. 58

Review : Common Graphs
...................................................................................................................... 64

Limits ............................................................................................................................................ 76

Introduction
............................................................................................................................................ 76

Rates of Change and Tangent Lines
...................................................................................................... 78

The Limit
................................................................................................................................................. 87

One‐Sided Limits
.................................................................................................................................... 97

Limit Properties
.....................................................................................................................................103

Computing Limits
..................................................................................................................................109

Infinite Limits
........................................................................................................................................117

Limits At Infinity, Part I
.........................................................................................................................126

Limits At Infinity, Part II
.......................................................................................................................135

Continuity
...............................................................................................................................................144

The Definition of the Limit
....................................................................................................................151

Derivatives .................................................................................................................................. 166

Introduction
...........................................................................................................................................166

The Definition of the Derivative
...........................................................................................................168

Interpretations of the Derivative
.........................................................................................................174

Differentiation Formulas
......................................................................................................................179

Product and Quotient Rule
...................................................................................................................187

Derivatives of Trig Functions
...............................................................................................................193

Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions
........................................................................204

Derivatives of Inverse Trig Functions
..................................................................................................209

Derivatives of Hyperbolic Functions
....................................................................................................215

Chain Rule
..............................................................................................................................................217

Implicit Differentiation
.........................................................................................................................227

Related Rates
.........................................................................................................................................236

Higher Order Derivatives
......................................................................................................................250

Logarithmic Differentiation
..................................................................................................................255

Applications of Derivatives ....................................................................................................... 258

Introduction
...........................................................................................................................................258

Rates of Change
......................................................................................................................................260

Critical Points
.........................................................................................................................................263

Minimum and Maximum Values
...........................................................................................................269

Finding Absolute Extrema
....................................................................................................................277

The Shape of a Graph, Part I
..................................................................................................................283

The Shape of a Graph, Part II
................................................................................................................292

The Mean Value Theorem
.....................................................................................................................301

Optimization
..........................................................................................................................................308

More Optimization Problems
...............................................................................................................322

Calculus I© 2007 Paul Dawkins ii http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Indeterminate Forms and L’Hospital’s Rule
........................................................................................336

Linear Approximations
.........................................................................................................................342

Differentials
...........................................................................................................................................345

Newton’s Method
...................................................................................................................................348

...........................................................................................................................353

Integrals ...................................................................................................................................... 359

Introduction
...........................................................................................................................................359

Indefinite Integrals
................................................................................................................................360

Computing Indefinite Integrals
............................................................................................................366

Substitution Rule for Indefinite Integrals
............................................................................................376

More Substitution Rule
.........................................................................................................................389

Area Problem
.........................................................................................................................................402

The Definition of the Definite Integral
.................................................................................................412

Computing Definite Integrals
...............................................................................................................422

Substitution Rule for Definite Integrals
...............................................................................................434

Applications of Integrals ........................................................................................................... 445

Introduction
...........................................................................................................................................445

Average Function Value
........................................................................................................................446

Area Between Curves
............................................................................................................................449

Volumes of Solids of Revolution / Method of Rings
............................................................................460

Volumes of Solids of Revolution / Method of Cylinders
.....................................................................470

Work
.......................................................................................................................................................478

Extras .......................................................................................................................................... 482

Introduction
...........................................................................................................................................482

Proof of Various Limit Properties
........................................................................................................483

Proof of Various Derivative Facts/Formulas/Properties
...................................................................494

Proof of Trig Limits
...............................................................................................................................507

Proofs of Derivative Applications Facts/Formulas
.............................................................................512

Proof of Various Integral Facts/Formulas/Properties
.......................................................................523

Area and Volume Formulas
..................................................................................................................535

Types of Infinity
.....................................................................................................................................539

Summation Notation
.............................................................................................................................543

Constants of Integration
.......................................................................................................................545