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Advanced Materials

Advanced Materials

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Advanced Materials and Structuresand their Fabrication Processes
Book manuscript, Narvik University College, HiN
Dag Lukkassen and Annette MeidellAugust 23, 2007
ContentsI Materials and Structures 8
1 Ceramics and glasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.1 Ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.2 Glasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3 Industrial Importance of Ceramics and Glasses . . . . . . . . . . . 131.4 Industrially Important Glasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141.5 Technical Ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141.5.1 High-performance ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Metals and metal alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.1 High-peformance Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.1.1 High-Performance Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.1.2 High-Performance Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.1.3 Space-age metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Polymers and Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.1 The structure of polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.2 Crystallinity in polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.2.1 The glass transition temperature and melting temperature 263.3 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.4 Properties of plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.4.1 Thermosettings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
 
3.4.2 Types of Thermosettings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303.4.3 Thermoplastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323.4.4 Types of Thermoplastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343.5 Classi
cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393.6 Additives in Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393.6.1 Oriented Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413.7 Elastomers & Rubbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413.7.1 Rubber and Arti
cial Elastomers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433.8 Biopolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473.8.1 What makes a polymer a biopolymer? . . . . . . . . . . . 473.8.2 Applications of biopolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483.8.3 Properties of biopolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483.8.4 Additional information on raw materials in biopolymers . . 503.8.5 Plastic taste better with sugar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554.1 The history of composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564.2 Natural composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564.3 Man-made Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584.3.1 Fiber-Reinforced Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604.3.2 Classi
cation of composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604.4 Ceramic matrix composites CMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614.5 Metal Matrix Composites MMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644.6 Polymer Matrix Composites PMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654.7 Fiber reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664.7.1 Choosing
bers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674.7.2 Glass
bers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694.7.3 Carbon
bers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704.7.4 Boron
ber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714.7.5 Ceramic
bers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714.7.6 Polymer Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724.7.7 Carbon nanotube (CNT)
bers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744.7.8 Fiber hybrids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754.7.9 Spider silk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754.8 Aerogel composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764.9 Textile composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784.10 Bio-inspired materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784.11 Self-healing composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792
 
4.12 Left-handed metamaterials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815 Smart (intelligent) Materials and Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875.1 Color Changing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885.1.1 Photochromic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885.1.2 Thermochromic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885.2 Light Emitting Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885.2.1 Electroluminescent materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895.2.2 Fluorescent materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895.2.3 Phosphorescent materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905.3 Moving Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915.3.1 Conducting polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915.3.2 Dielectric elastomers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925.3.3 Piezoelectric materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925.3.4 Polymer gels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935.3.5 Shape memory materials (SMM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 945.3.6 Nanostructured Shape Memory Materials . . . . . . . . . . 955.3.7 Magnetic Shape Memory (MSM) Materials . . . . . . . . . 965.4 Temperature Changing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 975.4.1 Thermoelectric materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 976 Functional Gradient Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 987 Solar Cell Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1017.1 Light-absorbing materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1017.2 Silicon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027.3 Thin
lms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1037.4 Silicon solar cell device manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1048 Nano - materials - and technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1068.1 Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1078.1.1 Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1088.2 Nanocomposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098.3 Flexible ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108.4 New type of High-performance Ceramic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118.5 Back to square one? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1129 Cellular Solids, Structures & Foams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1169.1 Metal Foams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179.1.1 Aluminium foam: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1189.2 Polymeric foam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1199.3 Refractory foams / Ceramic foam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1223

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