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Chapters 1 9

Chapters 1 9



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Published by Jennifer Torres

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Published by: Jennifer Torres on Dec 16, 2009
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In the early days, equipment maintenance was conducted only whenequipment actually failed. The work was more “fix it” than maintenance. Shortlythereafter, came the recognition that performing regular maintenance andrefurbishment tasks on equipment could keep equipment operating longer betweenfailures. This became known, variously, as Periodic Maintenance, Calendar BasedMaintenance or Preventive Maintenance (PM). The goal was to have most of theequipment be able to operate most of the time until the next scheduled maintenanceoutage. This approach is also outdated. Now Condition monitoring has made good progress in recent years maintenance is being carried out based on condition of machine which reduces the cost of unnecessarily opening of equipment. Most of the defects encountered in the rotating machinery give rise to a distinct vibration pattern (vibration signature analysis techniques)Vibration Monitoring is the ability torecord and identify vibration “Signatures” which makes the technique so powerfulfor monitoring rotating machinery. Vibration analysis is normally applied by usingtransducers to measure acceleration, velocity or displacement. The choice largelydepends on the frequencies being analyzed.Condition monitoring has made good progress in recent years in identifyingany types of deterioration in plant machinery, so that pro-active maintenance can be performed, improving overall plant productivity. Vibrations are found almostEverywhere in power plants. Rotating machinery vibrates due to unbalances,misalignments and imperfect bearings; Vibration, in general, reduces equipmentlife and, in extreme cases, can result in equipment damage or even catastrophicfailures. On the other hand, existence of vibration can also be used to diagnoseequipment problems and provide.1
The new generation of condition monitoring and diagnostics systems differs bythe detailed solution of diagnostic problems that allows making a step from machinevibration state monitoring to the monitoring of the machine technical condition. Mostrotating machine defects can be detected by such a system much before dangeroussituations occur.The aim of vibration monitoring is the detection of changes in the vibrationcondition of the object under investigation during its operation. The cause of suchchanges is mainly the appearance of a defect. The number of such points can be reducedto one or two for each object to be monitored if there is a common casing.The main objective of this project is to identify the causes of significant vibrationsdeveloped in the main pump driving end and main pump non driving end and to rectifythose vibrations by proper action and to develop an simple ANN for the fault diagnosis boiler feed pump.
The project is organized into following activities:Chapter I highlights the importance, objective of the study and methodology of the work.Chapter II deals with the information from the research papers.Chapter III gives the introduction of maintenance strategies, predictive maintenance procedure, and condition monitoring techniques and briefly about the vibrationmonitoring.Chapter IV describes the theory regarding basics of vibration, vibration instrumentation,and DATAPAC 1500 the instrument used for the vibration analysis.Chapter V deals with the vibration analysis procedure and fault diagnosis of themachinery.Chapter VI gives the overview of the artificial neural networks, back propagationalgorithm and application ANN to vibration analysis.Chapter VII deals with the case study of the BOILER FEED PUMP. The vibrationspectrum analysis and the experimentation and the fault diagnosis of the machine.Chapter VIII presents the application of ANN for the fault recognition on BFP.Chapter IX lists out the results, conclusions and future scope of the work.2
A literature survey was taken up to review present status of research in the field of condition monitoring. Machine condition monitoring is gaining importance in industry because of the need to increase reliability and to decrease the possibility of productionloss due to the machine breakdown. The use of vibration and acoustic emission signals isquite common in the field of condition monitoring of rotating machinery. By comparingthe signals of a machine running in the normal and faulty conditions. Detection of faultslike unbalance, rotor rub, shaft misalignment, gear failure and bearing defects is possible.These signals can also be used to detect the incipient failures of the machine components,through the online monitoring system, reducing the possibility of catastrophic damageand the down time. Some of the recent works in this area are.
Scientist and head, condition monitoring group, CMERI,DURGAPUR. Presented paper on “
Vibration based condition monitoring of rotatingmachines”
states that Condition Monitoring is defined as the collection, comparison andstorage of measurements defining machine condition. Almost everyone will recognize theexistence of a machine problem sooner or later. One of the objectives of ConditionMonitoring is to recognize damage that has occurred so that ample time is available toschedule repairs with minimum disruption to operation and production. In this aspectvibration is probably the best operating parameter to judge dynamic condition of machines. Condition monitoring is essentially a screening process in whichmeasurements and other data are compared to pre-established norms for the purpose of recognizing abnormal variations.
A machine seldom breaks down without warning. The signs of impending breakdown are almost present long before the catastrophic failure. Vibration signalsdefine the dynamic property of the machine including various faults of machine like bearing instability, unbalance, coupling misalignment, looseness, rubs, etc. Vibration3

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