by Peter Coutteau PhD
Co-authors: Ward Spruyt, Alexander Van Halteren,Sam Ceulemans & Wouter MeeusINVE Aquaculture, Hoogveld 91, 9200 Dendermonde, BelgiumEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Are you ready for the
of the future
The animal feed industry has faced tremendous increases of ingredient prices over the past years. This hasaccelerated a search for alternative formulations and feed additives to improve the cost efficiency of feed at the farm. Contrary to the livestock industry, developments in aquaculture are still hampered by thelimited nutritional knowledge and the lack of critical mass in a relatively small-scale feed industry.Nevertheless, a number of promising additive concepts have become available recently to improve thesustainability of feed for fish and shrimp, both in terms of farm economics and ecological responsibility.
alleviate increased cost of feed formula-tions for poultry and pigs.Various types of feed additives have beendeveloped which enhance the digestibil-ity and/or utilization efficiency of nutrients,including exogenous enzymes, compoundsaiding in the digestive process by improvingabsorption, mobilization and transport of nutrients, stimulators of enzyme secretion,feeding stimulants reducing feed/nutrientwaste, pre/probiotics and botanical extractsmodulating the gut microflora.The feeding biology, digestive physiol-ogy and nutritional requirements of warm-blooded land animals differ significantlyfrom those of aquaculture organisms.Therefore, the direct application in aqua-culture of nutritional concepts developedfor livestock is not trivial. The present arti-cle illustrates potential advances in the costefficiency of aquafeeds by the developmentof novel nutritional concepts specifically foraquaculture species.
Natural emulsifiersto enhance lipiddigestion in shrimp
Shrimps do not tolerate high levels of dietary fat well. A number of studies showreduced growth at levels above 10 percentof dietary lipid.Nevertheless, shrimp have no or verylimited capacity to biosynthesize a numberof lipid molecules which are essential fornormal growth, including cholesterol, highlyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids.Cholesterol is a key constituent of cellmembranes and precursor for steroid andmoulting hormones. It has been found tobe most effective in different species of shrimp at dietary levels ranging from 0.20to 0.5 percent. Cholesterol levels below0.10 percent limit growth in Litopenaeusvannamei, even if the other nutrients areformulated to satisfy normal requirements(Duerr and Walsh, 1996).Fishmeal is the major cholesterol sourcein practical feed formulations for shrimpwith some contributions also coming fromfish oil, squid and shrimp meal.Shrimp cannot bioconvert highly
unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA: 20:5n-3 or
EPA; 22:6n-3 or DHA) which need to beprovided at 0.8-1 percent in the diet viathe marine ingredients, mainly fish oil andfishmeal.Phospholipids are a component of cell
Novel feed supplements can reducethe requirements for traditionalingredients in commercial feedsfor Litopenaeus vannamei
Two feeds were formulated at the same cost using eitherexclusively commercial feed ingredients (‘traditional feed’) or acombination of standard ingredients with the feed supplementsAquasterol and Aquaflavour (‘novel feed’). To balance the cost of the novel feed, significant reductions were made in the formula-tion for traditional feed ingredients, which resulted in loweranalytical levels for various nutrients compared to the ‘traditional’formula.These are in available phosphorous (water soluble phospho-
rous), cholesterol, phospholipids and n-3 HUFA which were
different by minus seven percent to minus 44 percent
. Due to some variations in practical ingredients, the ‘novel’feed also showed lower specifications in crude protein and fatcompared to the ‘traditional’ feed.Results showed that shrimp fed the ‘novel’ feed had significantlybetter growth (1.17g/week versus 1.07g/week) and showed no dif-ferences in terms of survival, food conversion and protein efficiencyratio compared to animals fed the traditional feed (Table 1).This seemed contrary to the lower nutritional specificationsof the novel feed.Verification trials under pond conditions in Indonesia using similarformulations confirmed the above findings.These results clearly showedthe potential formaking shrimpformulationsless dependenton traditionalfeed ingredientsby enhancingthe digestibilityand availability of nutrients usingnovel feedsupplements.
Feed analysis and shrimp performance for two feedsof different nutritional specifications. Data from a 70-dayfeeding trial with L. vannamei using triplicate tanks of 1m3stocked with 20 shrimp/tank.
Shrimp feed formula
T r a d i t i o n a l N o v e l % d i f f e r e n c e ( n o v e l v s t r a d i t i o n a l )
Crude Protein (%)35.834.8-3%Crude Fat (%)8.78.2-6%Crude Ash (%)9.19.44%Moisture (%)9.599.641%Watersoluble Phosphorous (%)0.480.32-34%Cholesterol (GLC, %)0.180.1-44%Phospholipids (Iatro scan, %)0.930.85-9%EPA (mg/g DM)4.854%DHA (mg/g DM)5.74.8-16%n-3 HUFA sum (mg/g DM)11.911.1-7%
Results growth trial 70 days L. vannamei
Survival ( percent)91.793.3nsInitial weight (g)1.021.02nsFinal weight (g)11.3112.74+13 %*Gram/week1.031.17+14 %*Feed Intake (%/ABW/day)5.455.61nsFCR2.292.31nsPER (weight gain/protein intake)1.231.25ns
ns= not significantly different; *= significantly different P<0.05
Culture system for Litopenaeusvannamei at the INVE Technologies testcenter in Brackishwater AquacultureDevelopment Center, Indonesia
-January-February 09 | IttIol
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