MAN VS. MANTHE SCORCHED EARTH OF DARFUR
The United States and its allies have spent nearly $3 billion inthe form of humanitarian assistance to treat the symptoms of massviolence in Darfur,but they have mostly ignored the causes.Theypressed for humanitarian access to Darfur without doing what isnecessary to help the homeless return to their torched villages andfarms.They authorized the deployment of a UN-led peacekeepingmission four years after the crisis erupted,but then lacked theresolve to penalize Sudanese officials who obstructed the deploy-ment of the troops.Indeed,UN member states could not even rallythe essential military assets necessary to give the force a fightingchance in a region the size of France.They denounced atrocitiesand authorized investigations by the International Criminal Court,but then failed to share vital information with the prosecutor,andneither supported nor facilitated the arrest of the war criminalsindicted bythe court.In order to ameliorate the human rights and humanitarianemergency and address the roots of the crisis,the United Statesmust work far more robustly and multilaterally to protect thepeople,promote the peace and punish the perpetrators—the threePs of genocide prevention.First and most urgently in such crises,the civilian populationmust be protected.In September 2005,morethan 150 UNmember states agreed that they bore the “responsibility to protect”civilians wherever and whenever they are at risk of a massacre.Yetthose same countries have failed miserably to uphold this newlycodified norm.An effective UN-led protection force in Darfur isnot a panacea,but it would help protect thousands of people fromfurther depredations at the hands of militias,government soldiersand rebel forces.Such a force must be large enough to reach themost isolated displaced people and deter abuses,thus encouragingthose in the camps to return home so they can rebuild and planttheir crops in order to avoid perpetual famine.Second,the United States must demonstrate much more sub-stantial leadership in promoting a peaceful settlement of Darfur’sincreasingly complicated conflict.That can work.In January 2005,largely thanks to aggressive US diplomacy,the Sudanese govern-ment settled a two-decade-long conflict with rebels in southern
AMING EUUM VELIT,
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rebels in Farawaya,northern Darfur.
soldiers stop for water afterrepelling a Janjaweed attackon the town of Adre, a bordertown in eastern Chad, forthe second time in a week.
Following pages,clockwise from top left:
rebels rush back totheir base in northern Sudanat twilightafter an operationnear the Chadian border.
rebel in Jidili,northern Darfur.
pass the Medicins SansFrontieres hospital in Adre.(The hole in the doorwas created by a rocket-propelled grenade thatlanded inside the hospitalcompound.)
on the streetsof Adre.