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Free Ride: The Senate Health Bill’s Approach to “Employer Responsibility” Means Some Large Employers Get to Take It Easy

Free Ride: The Senate Health Bill’s Approach to “Employer Responsibility” Means Some Large Employers Get to Take It Easy

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Leaders in both the House and the Senate have committed to "shared responsibility" as a basic principle of health care reform, meaning that the costs of health care coverage are shared by individuals, businesses, and the public sector. However, as this issue brief documents, the Senate version of the bill creates a free rider problem that would make it easy for many large and profitable employers, particularly the ones paying poor wages, to shirk their responsibilities.
Leaders in both the House and the Senate have committed to "shared responsibility" as a basic principle of health care reform, meaning that the costs of health care coverage are shared by individuals, businesses, and the public sector. However, as this issue brief documents, the Senate version of the bill creates a free rider problem that would make it easy for many large and profitable employers, particularly the ones paying poor wages, to shirk their responsibilities.

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Published by: Center for Economic and Policy Research on Dec 17, 2009
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Issue Brief
December 2009
*Shawn Fremstad is Director of the Inclusive and Sustainable Economy Initiative at the Center for Economicand Policy Research in Washington, D.C.
Free Ride: The Senate HealthBill’s Approach to “EmployerResponsibility” Means SomeLarge Employers Get to Take ItEasy
Leaders in both the House and the Senate have committed to “sharedresponsibility” as a basic principle of health care reform. Sharedresponsibility means the costs of health care coverage are shared by individuals, businesses, and the public sector. Failure to ensure thatemployers fairly share in the responsibility for providing health coverage canresult in a “free rider” problem. Responsible employers who provide goodjobs will share in the costs, while less responsible employers who mostly provide low-wage jobs with limited benefits will seek to shift their share of the costs to others, including taxpayers, their employees, and otherbusinesses. The most efficient and equitable way to limit this kind of employer free-riding is to require all employers to either provide affordable healthinsurance to all of their workers or to contribute to the costs of providing publicly subsidized affordable health insurance to uninsured workers.Broad-based employer responsibility of this kind is more equitable andefficient than an approach that allows substantial numbers of employers toavoid any responsibility or to limit their responsibility relative to otheremployers.Health care reform legislation passed by the House earlier this year includesa sensibly designed employer-responsibility provision that is consistent withthe shared-responsibility approach and limits employer free-riding. TheHouse bill gives employers the option of providing affordable healthinsurance to their workers or contributing a percentage of their payroll tothe public sector to cover part of the costs of providing publicly subsidizedinsurance to their workers.
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  The version of the health bill currently being debated in the Senate alsoincludes an employer responsibility provision, but the Senate provision isdesigned in a way that would make it easy for many large and profitableemployers, particularly the ones paying poor wages, to shirk their
Center for Economic andPolicy Research
1611 Connecticut Ave, NW Suite 400 Washington, DC 20009tel: 202-293-5380fax: 202-588-1356 www.cepr.net
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CEPR Free Ride: The Senate Health Bill’s Approach to “Employer Responsibility”
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responsibilities. In essence, many large, low-wage employers could avoid paying their fair share of health insurance costs by shifting a portion of their share to the public, other more responsiblebusinesses, and individual workers.
“Shared Responsibility” Not So Shared in the Senate Bill
 Table 1
(on the next page) provides an analysis of how responsibility for health insurance costs isshared in the Senate bill between workers and other individuals, employers, and the public. Underthe Senate bill, these responsibilities vary depending on a worker’s family income and, for workers with family incomes between 133 and 400 percent of the federal poverty line, whether they areemployed on a full-time or part-time basis, and whether they receive a tax credit that reduces thecost of premiums for insurance purchased through the new health insurance “exchange” establishedby the legislation.For employees with family incomes below 133 percent of the federal poverty line, there is noemployer responsibility. Similarly, for employees with family incomes over 400 percent of the federalpoverty line, there is no employer responsibility, although employers generally do provide healthcoverage for most employees with incomes in this range.For employees with family incomes between 133 and 400 percent of the federal poverty line, there isemployer responsibility, but it is limited to full-time employees.
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Under the Senate bill: 1) employers who
do not 
provide health insurance to their employees would pay an assessment equal to $750 perfull-time employee (the fee would be based on the total number of full-time employees, including those who did not receive a premium tax credit for purchasing insurance through the exchange),
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 and 2) employers who do provide health insurance would also pay an assessment if one or more of their employees opted out of the employer plan because the premiums were unaffordable (morethan 10 percent of the employee’s family income). This assessment would be equal to the lesser of $3,000 for each full-time employee who received a premium tax credit or $750 per full-timeemployee (including those who didn’t receive a credit).
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CEPR Free Ride: The Senate Health Bill’s Approach to “Employer Responsibility”
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TABLE 1The Not-So Shared Responsibility for Health Care Coverage in the Senate Health Bill
 Individual Responsibility Employer Responsibility Public Responsibility Employees withFamily Incomeunder 133 percent of Federal Poverty Line
Individual must obtainqualifying health coverage.This requirement can be metby enrolling in Medicaid,which will be available to allindividuals with incomes upto 133% of the federal povertyline (FPL).No responsibility. Public pays cost of Medicaid.
Full-Time Employees (30hours or more)with Family Income Between 133-400 percent of FederalPoverty Line
 
Individual must obtainqualifying health coverage.If employee purchasesinsurance (through theexchange established by thelegislation), they are eligiblefor a premium tax credit thatwould limit their premiumpayments according to asliding scale that goes from2.8% of income for someoneat 100% of FPL to 9.8% of income for those between 300and 400% of FPL.If an employee opts out of employer-provided coverageand purchases insurancethrough the exchange, theemployee is only eligible for apremium tax credit if theemployee’s share of premiumsis 9.8% of their income orhigher, or if the employer planhas an actuarial value of lessthan 60%.
 
No responsibility to provideaffordable coverage.Employers with more than 50full-time employees must payassessment if one or more of their full-time employeesreceives a premium tax credit.For employers that
do not 
offerhealth insurance, theassessment is equal to $750 perfull-time employee (includingemployees who do not receivepremium tax credits).For employers that
do offer 
 coverage but have one or moreemployees receiving apremium tax credit (becausethe coverage did not meetminimum standards and theemployee opted out of it), theassessment is $3,000 for eachemployee receiving a tax creditor $750 for each full-timeemployee (including those notreceiving credits), whichever isless.
 
Public pays cost of premiumtax credit, but cost may bepartially or fully offset bypenalty on employer.Public partially subsidizescost of employer-providedinsurance throughindividual tax exclusion foremployer-provided healthbenefits.
Part-Time Employees (lessthan 30 hours) withFamily Income Between 133-400 percent of FederalPoverty Line
Same as above. No responsibility. Public pays cost of premiumtax credit.Public partially subsidizescost of employer-providedinsurance throughindividual tax exclusion foremployer-provided healthbenefits.
 
 Employees withFamily Incomes Above 400 percent of FPL
 
Individual must obtainqualifying health coverage.Not eligible for premium taxcredit.
 
No responsibility. Public partially subsidizescost of employer-providedinsurance throughindividual tax exclusion foremployer-provided healthbenefits.

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