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Understanding Knowledge

Understanding Knowledge

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Published by imad rehman

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Published by: imad rehman on Dec 17, 2009
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02/28/2013

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Understanding Knowledge
Knowledge
can be defined as the
``understanding obtained through the process of experience or appropriate study.''
 
Knowledge can also be an accumulation of facts, procedural rules, orheuristics.
A
fact
is generally a statement representing truth about a subjectmatter or domain.
A
procedural rule
is a rule that describes a sequence of actions.
A
heuristic
is a rule of thumb based on years of experience.
Intelligence
implies the capability to acquire and apply appropriateknowledge.
Memory
indicates the ability to store and retrieve relevant experienceaccording to will.
Learning
represents the skill of acquiring knowledge using themethod of instruction/study.
Experience
relates to the understanding that we develop through our pastactions.
Knowledge can develop over time through successful experience, andexperience can lead to expertise.
Common sense
refers to the natural and mostly unreflective opinions of humans.
Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology
tries to identify the cognitive structures andprocesses that closely relates to skilled performance within an area of operation.
It provides a strong background for understanding knowledge and expertise.
In general, it is the interdisciplinary study of human intelligence.
 The two major components of cognitive psychology are:
Experimental Psychology:
This studies the cognitive processes thatconstitutes human intelligence.
Artificial Intelligence(AI):
This studies the cognition of Computer-based intelligent systems.
 The process of eliciting and representing experts knowledge usually involves a
knowledge developer 
and some
human experts
(domain experts).
In order to gather the knowledge from human experts, the developer usuallyinterviews the experts and asks for information regarding a specific area of expertise.
It is almost impossible for humans to provide the completely accurate reportsof their mental processes.
 The research in the area of cognitive psychology helps to a betterunderstanding of what constitutes knowledge, how knowledge is elicited, andhow it should be represented in a corporate knowledge base.
 
Hence, cognitive psychology contributes a great deal to the area of knowledgemanagement.
Data, Information and Knowledge
Data
represents unorganized and unprocessed facts.
Usually data is static in nature.
It can represent a set of discrete facts about events.
Data is a prerequisite to information.
An organization sometimes has to decide on the nature and volume of data that is required for creating the necessary information.
Information
 
Information can be considered as an aggregation of data (processeddata) which makes decision making easier.
Information has usually got some meaning and purpose.
Knowledge
 
By knowledge we mean
human understanding of a subject matter that has been acquired through proper study and experience
.
Knowledge is usually based on learning, thinking, and properunderstanding of the problem area.
Knowledge is not information and information is not data.
Knowledge is derived from information in the same way information isderived from data.
We can view it as an understanding of information based on itsperceived importance or relevance to a problem area.
It can be considered as the integration of human perceptive processesthat helps them to draw meaningful conclusions.
 
Figure 1.1:
Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom
Kinds of Knowledge
Deep Knowledge: Knowledge acquired through years of proper experience.
Shallow Knowledge: Minimal understanding of the problem area.
Knowledge as Know-How: Accumulated lessons of practical experience.
Reasoning and Heuristics: Some of the ways in which humans reason are asfollows:
Reasoning by analogy: This indicates relating one concept to another.
Formal Reasoning: This indicates reasoning by using
deductive
(exact)or
inductive
reasoning.
Deduction uses major and minor premises.
In case of deductive reasoning, new knowledge is generated byusing previously specified knowledge.
Inductive reasoning implies reasoning from a set of facts to ageneral conclusion.

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