Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
9Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Oscillations notes

Oscillations notes

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,688|Likes:
Published by xwenhan

More info:

Published by: xwenhan on Dec 17, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/24/2012

pdf

text

original

 
GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745) 1 http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/H2Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang Hp: 9620 7426 Email: t_kheng@live.comBlog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/ Copyright © 2009
 Oscillations
1.Simple harmonic motion
An oscillatory motion in which the acceleration is always directed towards a fixed point (equilibrium position) and itsmagnitude is directly proportional to the distance from the fixed point. Its defining equation isa = -
ω
2
x.
2.Definition of some terms
The
displacement
is the distance measured from the equilibrium point
in a stated direction 
.The
amplitude
is the
magnitude 
of the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position.
 
JC Physics Tuition
Mr Tan Kheng Siang, B.Eng. (Hons).
EXPERIENCED JC tutor offers excellent exam preparation.
Small Class Size, Comprehensive Revision Notes, Mind maps, Promo/Prelim Questions
Call up for Free Trial Lesson.
Hp: 9620 7426
Email: t_kheng@live.com
Blog:http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/
Weekdays (Mon, Tue & Fri): JC Physics (7.00pm –8.30 pm)
Saturday: JC Physics (12.30 pm –2.00 pm)Date/TimingVenueDescription of VenueWays to get there.Weekday(7.00 pm –8.30 pm)Potong PasirCommunity ClubWithin 5 min walking distance fromSAJC & Potong Pasir MRTPotong Pasir MRT,Bus 13, 107, 133, 142,147Weekday(7.00 pm –8.30 pm)Paya LebarKovanCommunity ClubWithin 5 min walking distance fromKovan MRTKovan MRT,Bus 112, 113, 115,119Saturday(12.30 pm –2.00 pm)Toa Payoh Hub(3rd Level)Toa Payoh BusTerminal Station** Please Call or SMS 9620 7426 or email to T_kheng@live.com to Register.Slots are limited. Please register early.
 
GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745) 2 http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/H2Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang Hp: 9620 7426 Email: t_kheng@live.comBlog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/ Copyright © 2009
 
The
period
is the time taken to make one complete oscillation.The
frequency
is the number of oscillations completed per unit time.The
angular frequency
is the angle by which the phase of the motion changes in unit time. It is expressed in rad s
-1
.Two particles are said to be
oscillating in phase
if the
displacements at any instant 
in time are exactly similar, i.e. of thesame direction and varying in the same manner. If the
displacements 
at any instant are not exactly similar then there is aphase difference between them. Oscillations
are said to be π rad out of phase if there is a phase difference of half a cycle.
3.Variation of displacement, velocity and acceleration with time
 x x
 
sin
0
v x dt dxv
   
coscos
00
Note that magnitude of the maximum velocity v
0
= x
0
ω, and occurs at the
equilibrium point.
a xv dt dva
     
sinsinsin
0200
Note that the magnitude of the maximum acceleration a
0
= x
0
ω
2
and occurs atthe maximum displacements and where velocity is zero.
4.Variation of velocity and acceleration with displacement
 xa
2
 
220
x xv
 
5.Energy in SHM
There is a constant interchange of kinetic and potential energy. The total energy is always constant.
6.Variation of kinetic energy and potential energy with displacement
Substitute
220
x xv
 
into
2
21
mv E 
, we get
)(21
2202
 x xm E 
 
Since total energy is constant and is equal to E
k
when x = 0,
202
21
 xm E 
 
(horizontal straight line)
22
21
 xm E  E  E 
 p
 
 
ttt
 
GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745) 3 http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/H2Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang Hp: 9620 7426 Email: t_kheng@live.comBlog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/ Copyright © 2009
 
7.Variation of kinetic energy and potential energy with time
Substitute
 xv
  
cos
0
into
2
21
mv E 
, we get
 xm E 
  
2202
cos21
At total energy is constant and is equal to maximum kineticenergy,
202
21
 xm E 
 
(horizontal straight line)
 xm E  E  E 
 p
  
2202
sin21
Note that two cycles are completed in T.
8.Free oscillations
There are no resistive forces acting on the mass undergoing oscillation. The total energy does not decrease with time andthe amplitude remains constant.
9.Damped oscillations
There are resistive forces acting on the mass undergoing oscillation. The total energy decreases with time as it is lost tothe surroundings and the amplitude eventually decays to zero.
Light damping
 –Oscillations is maintained but amplitude decreases with time.
Critical damping
 –No oscillations. The motion is brought to rest in the shortest possible time. Useful in car suspensionsystems and analogue meters.
Over-dampedsystem
 –No oscillations. The system returns very slowly to equilibrium position.
10.Forced oscillations
A forced oscillation occurs when an external periodic force (driving force) acts on the oscillating system. The oscillatingsystem oscillates with the frequency of the external force (driving frequency) and not its natural frequency. The amplitudeof the forced oscillation depends on (i) the relative values of the natural frequency of the system and the value of thedriving frequency and (ii) amount of damping in the system (see graph below).
11.Resonance
A phenomenon when the amplitude of a forced oscillation becomes very large when the driving frequency is equal to thenatural frequency of the oscillating system. This is because there is maximum transfer of energy from the driving force tothe oscillating system.

Activity (9)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Manish Pathania added this note
good contiribution
LIm Jun Guang liked this
terrygoh liked this
noman21 liked this
sundark5 liked this
RBMATS liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->