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APUSH, Chapter Thirteen Terms, The Rise of a Mass Democracy

APUSH, Chapter Thirteen Terms, The Rise of a Mass Democracy

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Terms for Chapter Thirteen of the American Pageant
Terms for Chapter Thirteen of the American Pageant

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Published by: Julie on Dec 17, 2009
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http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ APUSH
Chapter Thirteen: The Rise of a Mass Democracy
Universal White Male SuffrageUniversal White Male SuffrageUniversal White Male SuffrageUniversal White Male SuffrageVoter turnout rose rapidly in the Jacksonian era25% voter turnout in 1824, but doubled in 1828, then reached 78% in 1840,with more people participating in the democratic systemEgalitarianismEgalitarianismEgalitarianismEgalitarianismHuman equality with respect to social, political, and economic affairs“KingKingKingKing”” CaucusCaucusCaucusCaucusIn the caucus system, party leaders would select candidates in small, closedmeetings.This system was replaced in the Election of 1836.National Nominating ConventionsNational Nominating ConventionsNational Nominating ConventionsNational Nominating ConventionsAll states were active in the selection process, which was a large, opengathering. This resulted in more excitement about participating in the politicalsystem, because anyone could go to the convention and support their favoredcandidate.This leads to a new emphasis on democracy, as well as the formation of thirdparties.
o
 
1828: Anti-Masons, which morph into the Whigs, which morph into theRepublicans
o
 
1829: Workingman’s Party in Philadelphia, created to promote the idea ofpublic education and prevent wage undercuts (led to unions in the future.This party morphs into the Democratic Party.“Corrupt BargainCorrupt BargainCorrupt BargainCorrupt Bargain”” ChargeChargeChargeChargeJackson charged Adams with making a deal with Henry Clay, Speaker of theHouse, claiming that Adams convinced Clay to support him in his bid forpresidency, and in return, Clay would ascend to the position of Secretary ofState.Angry Jacksonians protested this “corrupt bargain” and controversy ensued fornearly four years.Jackson called Clay the “Judas of the West” and John Rnadolph of Virginiacriticized the alliance between “the Puritan and the black-leg,” who “shines andstinks like rotten mackerel by moonlight.”While this was previously a common practice, the protest indicated that thepolitical climate was changing: such activities were now seen as anti-democratic.The political process was moving out from closed doors.
 
http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ APUSH
Chapter Thirteen: The Rise of a Mass Democracy
Tariff of AbominationsTariff of AbominationsTariff of AbominationsTariff of AbominationsWhile tariffs protected American industry against competition from Europeanmanufactured goods, they raised prices and invited retaliatory tariffs onAmerican agricultural exports to other countries.The middle states were historically supporters of protectionist tariffs. In the1820s, New Englanders such as Daniel Webster stopped supporting free tradein favor of tariffs, since New England was developing wool and textileindustries.1824: Congress increased general tariffs, but wool manufacturers wanted evenhigher tariffs. Jacksonites decided to promote a high-tariff bill, thinking itwould be defeated, hurting President Adams. However, it passed.Southerners, who would be hurt if other countries decided to put tariffs onagricultural exports from America, felt that tariffs were a bad thing. They also needed low prices, since they were heavy consumers of manufacturedgoods.Southerners believed that the tariff discriminated against them. While theNortheast, West, and Southwest were prospering, the Old South wasexperiencing problems.The tariff was a major issue that had underlying connections to slavery DenmarkDenmarkDenmarkDenmark VesVesVesVesey Rebellioney Rebellioney Rebellioney Rebellion1822: Freed slave Denmark Vesey led a failed slave rebellion in Charleston.The South was concerned that the federal government might interfere withslavery, after the Missouri Compromise and news of the rebellion.South Carolina was aware that the British West Indies were being pressuredby Britain abolitionism
they felt that this abolitionist spirit might spread to theWashington government, who might suppress slavery in the South.As a result, the South decided to take a strong stand against all federalinterference with states’ rights to prepare for such an event.South Carolina Exposition and ProtestSouth Carolina Exposition and ProtestSouth Carolina Exposition and ProtestSouth Carolina Exposition and ProtestSouth Carolina took the lead in protesting against the “Tariff of Abominations.”In 1828, they published the
South Carolina Exposition 
, secretly written by JohnC. Calhoun. This publication denounced the tariff as unconstitutional, proposingthat the states nullify the tariff.John C. CalhounJohn C. CalhounJohn C. CalhounJohn C. CalhounAs Vice President, Calhoun had to conceal his identity in the authorship of thepamphlet.He used to be a strong nationalist and Unionist, but reversed himself andbecame a prominent sectionalist in defense of the South and slavery.
 
http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ APUSH
Chapter Thirteen: The Rise of a Mass Democracy
National Republicans (NewNational Republicans (NewNational Republicans (NewNational Republicans (New----Federalists)Federalists)Federalists)Federalists)After the Era of Good Feelings, the Republicans split into two camps.National Republicans: John Quincy Adams, symbolized by oakDemocratic Republicans: Andrew Jackson, symbolized by hickory “MudslingingMudslingingMudslingingMudslinging”In 1828, politics began to reach new lows.Adams’ supporters described Jackson’s mother as a prostitute and his wife asan adulteress.Jackson’s men accused Adams of being a gambler, simply because he had abilliard table and a set of chessmen in the White House. They also criticized thelarge salaries Adams had received over the years.Andrew Jackson was convinced that the accusations from the opposing party had been responsible for his wife’s heart attack and subsequent death. Henever forgave Adams.“RevolutionRevolutionRevolutionRevolution”” of 1828of 1828of 1828of 1828Another name for the Election of 1828, a transforming election in which thecommon man triumphed over the elite.Rotation in OfficeRotation in OfficeRotation in OfficeRotation in OfficeOtherwise known as the spoils system, Jackson introduced this idea into thefederal government on a large scale. He felt that public offices should berotated among party supporters to help the nation.He felt that holding a public office did not require any special training and thatrotation would ensure that an aristocratic, bureaucratic, office-holding class didnot develop.Members of his party supported the spoils system on the grounds that it was areward for party loyalists.Kitchen CabinetKitchen CabinetKitchen CabinetKitchen CabinetJackson distrusted the Presidential Cabinet that he was appointed, andassembled his own Cabinet, which was colloquially referred to as Jackson’s“kitchen cabinet.”This Cabinet was made of people who were just yes-men that would agree withJackson’s view. In reality, Jackson had control over all decisions.Peggy OPeggy OPeggy OPeggy O’’Neill Eaton AffairNeill Eaton AffairNeill Eaton AffairNeill Eaton AffairPeggy Timberlake and Senator John Eaton became married shortly after thedeath of Peggy Timberlake’s first husband, under the encouragement ofAndrew Jackson.This scandalized many Cabinet wives, who snubbed Peggy. This movement wasled by Second Lady Calhoun.

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