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Kartveluri Memkvidreoba I Kashia

Kartveluri Memkvidreoba I Kashia

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R. Kashia
Treatment of Domestic Animals(According to Matkhoji Materials)
რუსუდან კაშია
შინაურ ცხოველთა მკურნალობა (მათხოჟის მასალების მიხედვით)
R. Kashia
Treatment of Domestic Animals(According to Matkhoji Materials)
რუსუდან კაშია
შინაურ ცხოველთა მკურნალობა (მათხოჟის მასალების მიხედვით)

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Published by: KARTVELIAN HERITAGE I on Dec 17, 2009
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06/30/2010

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rusudan kaSia
Sinaur cxovelTa mkurnaloba (maTxoJis masalebis mixedviT)
dialeqtologiis institutis xonis momZiebelTa Jgufis s. maTxoJSi muSaobisprocesSi, sxva mravalferovan eTnografiul masalasTan erTad, CaviwereT SinaurcxovelTa mkurnalobis meTodebi da saSualebani.qarTul xalxur veterinarias uZvelesi safuZvlebi aqvs. Sinaur cxovelTa mkurna-lobis xalxuri meTodebi aGwerilia samkurnalo wignebsa da karabadinebSi. maTSisamkurnalo saSualebebad ZiriTadad moxseniebulia KaKaCos zeTi, marilwKali, Zmari,naxSiri, niori, Kinuli. sxvadasxva balaxeuli naerTebi da sxv. (e. TaKaiSvili, 1902w.)sanam uSualod cxovelTa mkurnalobis xerxebze mogaxsenebdeT, oriode sitKviTminda Sevexo sofelSi Caweril xalxuri medicinis nimuSebs.CamovTvli im daavadebebs, romlebsac maTxoJlebi mama-papidan gadmocemuli meTo-debiT mkurnaloben. esenia: damwvroba, daCirqebuli adgilebi, sawereli, daCrdilva(frontit-haimoriti), kuy-nawlavis daavadebebi da sxva.gavrcelebulia iseTi iSviaTi manipulacia, rogoricaa avadmKofis zurgidan kun-TebSi arsebuli Savi yiebis amoKvanis xerxi.Sinauri cxoveli soflis oJaxSi lamis `oJaxis wevradaa~ miCneuli. saqonlis mo-vlas soflis mcxovrebi did dros uTmobs da misi mkurnalobis saukuneebiT SemuSa-vebul xerxebs gadascems Taobidan Taobas.ramdenime samkurnalo saSualeba CaviwereT sofelSi iseTi daavadebis samkurna-lod, rogoricaa wKlise _ fiziologiuri SeSupeba, curis anTeba (mastiti).veterinaria am SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva samkurnalwamlo saSualebas xmarobs, maTSoris ixtioris malamos.maTxoJSi wKlises samkurnalod sxvadasxvagvari saSualeba ician.soflis erT-erTi mcxovrebis tatiana melaZis naambobiT: `wKlise momirCenia Ka-lo miwiT mozelil ZmarSi. amas goukeTebdi dilas erJer, meore saGamos mobandiamas, kido axals goukeTebdi da es mesame dGes gaparuli iKo, ar qonda avantKofoba_ da agrZelebs _ es me bovSi viKavi, maswavla erTi voTxmozdaaTi wlis kacma~.svaneTSi (svanuri masalebis mixedviT) mastitis dros curze mjave marilian ma-wons usvamen.wKlises samkurnalod iKeneben rogorc balaxeul saSualebas, aseve cxovelurcximebs.38 w. maia kuxalaSvilma gviambo, rom bebiamisi am daavadebis samkurnalod ylakvisnaxarSs iKenebda, xolo Tuki avadmKofoba `moZalebuli~ iKo, curs dauzelda umari-lo Goris qoniT, anda gadaduGebuli zeTiT.samkurnalo process Tan axlavs wKlises Selocvis teqsti:ai, wKlisao, wKlisao, gaCenili xar G…Tisao,raa Seni wamali, savarcxalia mzisao,dautkpi da dauamdi, brZanebaa G…Tisao,es Selocva sasurvelia sami gvaris qalma gaimeoros.sofelSi balaxebiT mkurnaloben daavadebas, romelsac pepels uwodeben. veteri-nariis enaze mas fasiolozi qvia, es aris GviZlSi yiebis (GviZlis orpira) arseboba.s. makalaTias cnobiT, fSavSi yiebis samkurnalod ZiriTadad xmaroben xarisZiramarilgareul balaxs (s. makalaTia, 1985). mTiuleTSi _ navTian marils balaxs (s.makalaTia, 1930). ayaraSi pepels kvirkvelsac eZaxian, daavadebul cxovels asmeven ew-ris gvimris naKens (v. SamilaZe, gv. 76). okribaSi yiebis samkurnalo balaxs _ peplisbalaxs uwodeben, zogJer xmaroben qristesisxlasac.s. maTxoJis eqim-veterinarTan, guram JanaSiasTan saubarSi gairkva, rom igi SinaurcxovelTa mkurnalobis dros xSirad iKenebs xalxur, sofelSi naswavl balaxeul sam-kurnalo saSualebebs. pepliT daavadebuli saqonlis patrons igi urCevs SqerisfoTlebs nedli saxiT an gamxmari Sqeris naxarSs.sirsveli uCndeba rogorc adamians, aseve cxovels. sirsvelis recepti Sedgeba er-TmaneTSi areuli kvawaraxis, Sabiamnisa da Goris qonisagan. unda moifxikos daavade-buli adgili ise, rom sisxli gamodindes da es naerTi waesvas (jenia fircxalava, 68wlis).okribaSi Caweril sirsvelis receptSi, imave nivTierebebs Tofis wamali emateba.
 
qvalonis (samegrelos) Jgufis Canawerebis mixedviT, sirsvelis dros cxovels ta-ots an momwvar zeTs usvamen.rogorc gviTxres, es daavadeba adre ufro masiuri iKo, axla SedarebiT iSviaTia.cxeni xSirad aavaddeba yiiT. (s. makalaTias cnobiT) TuSeTSi yiiT daavadebulicxvris samkurnalod xmaroben Sxama Ziras naxarSs (sa. makalaTia, 1993 w.).`cxens outKdeba fxana _ gviambobs maTxoJis cnobili mesaqonle, 70 wlis mwKemsibuyu kuxalaSvili _ xeze, qvaze, Kvelaferze afxans da unda mixvde mag dros, rom ma-gas yia Kavs~.yiis wamlad buyu kuxalaSvili tirifis (z. Sengelia, 1970, gv. 37-46) totebisnaxarSs asaxelebs. mogvKavs amonaweri misi naambobidan: `maswavla erTi moxucebulikacma. es Kofila marTlac uebari saqme. gavakeTe masTe magi axla me SarSan zamTarSi.wamali ki moutane, qveKnis fuli davxarJe, mara magan ar mouxTa da es …ori litradavalevie me cxens da movarCine ase~.tirifis naxarSs farTod iKenebs Tavis praqtikaSi soflis veterinaric.maTxoJSi xalxuri meTodi aqvT SemuSavebuli mwvave infeqciuri daavadebis emfo-zomatozuri karbunkulis samkurnalod.medicina, veterinaria am SemTxvevaSi xmarobs Sratsa da acrebs.ayaraSi am daavadebas ianiKaras an yiyinas eZaxian da cxovels civ sagnebs adeben(v. SamilaZe, 1969, gv. 75). qvemo qarTlSi am daavadebas yuyunaTs uwodeben, mis sam-kurnalod gamoiKeneba `xaris Ziras~ fesvebi, an dasiebul adgils sadgisiT dauCvre-ten da marils aKrian (T. cagareiSvili, 1987, gv. 61).imereTSi emfozomatozur karbunkuls yiyKinas eZaxian. daavadebis simptomi Se-mdegnairia: `magan icis gacieba beCi, xo, mokidef xels, ase deiwKefs yuyKuns. e‡, magiayiyKina _ gvesaubreba buyu kuxalaSvili _ wavaqcevT amas da daneiT davseravT amas,gamovadenT sisxs da davaKriT marils... Tu garTulebulia, mere ar S…elis araferi~.saqonels xSirad awuxebs sxvadasxva paraziti, maT Soris kbenari, romlis drosaciKeneben TuTunis naxarSs. soflis mcxovrebi, 67 wlis nodar barabaZe gviambobs: `kbe-nari saqonels yamda. mere erTma gamocTilma mecxovelem maswavla, ro, biyo, iSoveTuTuni, dayerio da moxarSe egi wKalSio, gadaasxi imaso da ar geiars mis are-mare-zeo. marTlac gavakeTe da same ar gouaria~.svaneTSi (svanuri masalebis mixedviT) am dros daavadebul cxovels naZvis fisis,gogirdisa da TuTunis narevSi banen.xSir SemTxvevaSi, daavadebis samkurnalod SemuSavebuli meTodi metad Tavisebu-ria, magram, rogorc mecxoveleebma dagvarwmunes, sakmaod efeqturi. magaliTad, `xar-ma icis kisris tkivili, maGla uGeli ro adgia, oGon glaxa aminCi, meiK…an xo saxSi…Tq…aT, mobane sapniani wKliT da i saponi, mere bolos gousevi da ar gabano i sa-poni, ar Camobano, Seatove maGla kiserSi. xo, mSrali saponi, qafi, araviTari ramemagas ar gouars kisris tkivili~. (isev buyu kuxalaSvilis recepti).veterinaria xaris kisris tkivilis dros (roca uGeli wvimian amindSi kiserSikans gadaaclis) iKenebes sxvadasxva malamoebs.saponi, romlis SemadgenlobaSic kaustikuri soda Sedis, rogorc Cans, malamosrols asrulebs da aSuSebs sxeulis aqerclil, mkvdar uJredebs.wvril gamonaKars, romelic cxovels zogJer piris GruSi uCndeba, sofelSi xantils, xan sakreyelas uwodeben. misi xalxuri meTodiT amowva sakmaod rTuli proce-sia. amowva mxolod gazafxulzea SesaZlebeli, roca saqoneli SeiZlebs balaxis yamas(roca Calazea saqoneli, maSin araa rekomendirebuli) amowva xdeba gaxurebuli Cxi-rebis meSveobiT, amave dros ar SeiZleba erTbaSad mowva. operacia nel-nela, ramde-nime dGis manZilze unda Catardes. safrTxiloa, ar daziandes gemovnebis Jirkvlebi.tilis amowvis analogiuri xerxi samegreloSi, qvalonis Jgufis wevrebs aqvT Ca-werili. samegreloSi Tvlian, rom gamonaKars aCens yuyKiani, yaobiani wKali.Txas specifikuri daavadeba uCndeba. mas xSirad emarTeba qarebi, siaruli uyirsda `ixuTeba~. maTxoJis mesaqonleebma kargad ician, rom Txis sadgomi aucilebladmSrali unda iKos, nestian adgils Txa ver egueba. ukve daavadebul cxovels adgilisSecvliT, mSral adgilze gadaKvaniT mkurnaloben.Kvelaze xSiri mainc Sinaur cxovelTa Soris kuy-nawlaviT daavadebebia.xbos, Tuki meti raodenobiT miiGebs rZes, emarTeba muclis sisuste, mas muxis ka-niT (z. Sengelia, 1959, gv. 37_40) mkurnaloben.amis Sesaxeb gviambo Kofilma fermis muSakma, 72 wlis valodia adamiam: `waval,muxas movnaxav, amas kans gavacli... movxarSav. avaduGef da davalevief imas da Tavisu-falia mere, im wuCi igi mouxTeba, da Tu sisxzea, bodiSi am sitKvaze, mere magas ara-
 
feri ar S…elis~.samegreloSi (qvalonis Jgufis CanawerebiT) am dros muxis naxerxs naKaven, xsnianwKalSi da asmeven; an Txmelis kanis naxarSs iKeneben.gazafxulze xSiria saqonlis sokoTi mowamvlis SemTxvevebi; am dros saqonels`bodiSi da lezvi gadmodis da amiT vatKof, amiT vadasturef, rom esaa sokoTi na-wKeni~ _ gvesaubreba 68 wlis irodi barabaZe.am dros cxovels Jer cota araKs daalevineben, mere mravalZarGvas an yinyris na-Kens asmeven.veterinaria mowamvlis dros amorecxvebsa da glukoziT gadasxmebs iKenebs.gamocdilma mecxoveleebma ician, ra wKens saqonels da cdiloben moaridon igimomwamvlel balaxs.msxvilfexa saqonlisaTvis mawKenaria erTgvari xis foToli, romelsac fuTrasuwodeben da mcenare _ suro, oGond ara KovelTvis. sofelSi ician, rom mSrali su-ro ar wKens saqonels. mavnebelia sveli, gaKinuli suro da cxovels arideben mas.saqonels wKens balaxi, romlis saxeli ver gviTxres, misgan msxvilfexa saqonelsemarTeba Seberiloba (tilpania). saqarTvelos mcenareTa sakvlevTan Sedarebam gviCve-na, rom balaxs saxelad Zirmwara qvia da igi toqsikur mcenaredaa miCneuli (sakvlevit. IV). Tumca, sofelSi ician, rom balaxi mxolod nedli saxiTaa mawKenari, Tuki mas`mzem mokra piri~, e.i. gamxmaria, igi ukve aGaraa cxovelisaTvis saSiSi. (buyu kuxa-laSvili).qarTlSi aseT dros naxSirs (wKalSi gaxsnils asmeven) (T. cagareiSvili, 1987, gv.62) svaneTSi (lenJeris Jgufi) asmeven sakveTos.qvemo imereTSi, maTxoJSi, SeberilobiT daavadebul cxovels umarilo Goris qonsaKlapeben. samkurnalod iKeneben aseve gvimris Zirebis naxarSs (suliko melaZe, 65 w.).xboebis kuy-nawlaviT daavadebis SemTxvevaSi, Seberilobis an kuy-aSlilobisdros gvaswavles balaxebisagan momzadebuli wamlis recepti: mravalZarGvasa da Jin-yars asxamen 4 litra wKals, aduGebis Semdeg gafiltraven da erT Jerze naxevarlitrs asmeven. dagvarwmunes, rom es naxarSi uebari wamalia (guram JanaSia, 48 w.vet. eqimi, buyu kuxalaSvili).Cven SekiTxvaze, ramdenad xSirad mimarTavs veteqims, Tu ufro metad Tavisi cod-nis imedi aqvs, gamocdilma mecxovelem buyu kuxalaSvilma, xalxuri meTodebis cod-nis aucilebloba ase axsna: `axla ki arien eqimebi, mara aseTi gamosTileba ar aqvenmagens, axla meore kido, gazafxulis perioCi C…en mTaSi mi…deniT saqonels, vCebiTiqane eq…si T…e; mere isTevle CamovalT barSi; Tvarafeli gvecodineba, qe dagexocebasu Kvele~.Sinauri cxovelis mkurnalobisas farTod gamoiKeneba magiuri forma _ Selocve-biT mkurnaloba (saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli iKo Sinauri cxovelTa sxva daavadebisdasaZlevad mravalgvari Selocva, maTi teqstebi qarTul xelnawerebs aqvT Semonaxu-li) (i. gagulaSvili, 1986, gv. 70).CaviwereT naTvalevis locvis ramdenime varianti, romlebsac erTnairad iKenebenrogorc `gaTvaluli~ adamianis, aseve cxovelis samkurnalod (maT CamoTvlas ar mo-vKvebi).maT Soris Kvelaze sainteresod gveCveneba Selocvis mxolod xsovnaSi SemorCeni-li Zveli varianti (dGes mas ar iKeneben), romelsac Tan magiuri wamali axlda, esiKo mexis tKviisa, turis gulisa da raGac balaxebisagan damzadebuli naTvalevis wa-mali, rasac Selocvis teqsti axlda. am wamlis miGeba mxolod SabaT dGes iKo Tur-me rekomendirebuli.sofelSi Tvlian, rom gaTvalul saqonels Jobia mamakacma Seulocos; miaCniaT,rom kacisagan Selocili ufro yris, vidre qalisagan Senaloci.warmodgenili moxseneba erTi soflis farglebSi Sinaur cxovelTa mkurnalobismeTodebis dafiqsirebisa da aGweris mokrZalebul cdas warmoadgens. xalxuri vete-rinariis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT sxva regionebSi mopovebuli masalebis SeJereba-da-muSaveba, vimedovnebT, momavalSi saintereso suraTs mogvcems.
damowmebuli literatura
 i. gagulaSvili, 1986 _ i. gagulaSvili, qarTuli magiuri poezia, Tb., 1986.e. TaKaiSvili, 1902 _
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