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Research Process- Dr Majeed

Research Process- Dr Majeed

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05/16/2012

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Research Proposal
Title
An Assessment of Water Scarcity related diseases among the generalpopulation of three union councils of Tehsil Taftan, District Chagai,Balochistan.
CourseResearch Process ISubmitted toCourse SupervisorDr Rukhsana KhanSubmitted byDr Abdul MajeedMSPH 2009Health Services Academy Islamabad
1
 
Introduction:
Water is an essential resource for life and good health. A lack of water to meet dailyneeds is a reality today for one in three people around the world. Globally, the problem isgetting worse as cities and populations grow, and the needs for water increase inagriculture, industry and households
.Almost one fifth of the world's population (about 1.2 billion people) lives in areas wherethe water is physically scarce. One quarter of the global population also live indeveloping countries that face water shortages due to a lack of infrastructure to fetchwater from rivers and aquifers
 Water which is most important among all above mentioned factor is as important for survival as blood is to life: So elemental it goes unnoticed until it dries up or bursts itsarteries; so essential we die fighting for it. In a sobering forecast of life in the twenty-firstcentury water scarcity in the next century will lead to brutal wars, many over what wecalls "the most important fluid of the twenty-first century
Common diseases related to poor water, sanitation and unsafe hygiene practices are:Cholera, hepatitis A, dysentery, giardiasis, polio, e-coli, diarrhea, typhoid, salmonellafood poisoning, guinea worm, intestinal parasites like hookworm and tapeworm, scabiesand trachoma.
Water scarcity can lead to diseases such as trachoma (an eye infection that can lead to blindness), plague, typhus and scabies.
 [7]
Trachoma is the main cause of preventable blindness in the developing world, with four million sufferers, an estimated 500 millionat risk and six million permanently blinded. It is common in areas that are hot, dry anddusty and where there is not enough water for people to wash regularly. Scabies occurs inareas where there is a lack of water and people are unable to wash themselves, their clothes, bedclothes or houses regularly.
.
Literature Review:
In a study conducted in 1991 in Brazil, it was revealed that 7.2% of the population hadevidence of one or more signs of trachoma.
Global and Pakistan Situation regarding water shortage 
Viewed from space, our planet seems flushed with water. Yet most of the earth’s blueness is the ocean, too salty for humans and agriculture. Only about 2.5 percent of thewater is freshwater, and two-third of that is locked in glaciers and icecaps. Less than one-hundredth of one percent is drinkable and renewed each year through precipitation.
 The amount available per person has fallen steadily. It has dropped by about 60% since1950, as the population climbed from 2.5 billion to 6 billion, a will fall and additional 33 percent within fifty years if our numbers reach 9 billion, the middle of the projectedrange. As expected, the shortage affects mainly the poor. More than a billion people lack  potable water, and nearly 3 billion lack even minimal sanitation. The World HealthOrganization estimates that 250 million cases of water-related diseases such as choleraarise annually, resulting in 5-10 million deaths. Intestinal worms infect some 1.5 billion people, killing nearly 100,000 a year. Tens of millions of poor farming families cannotafford to irrigate their land, which lowers their crop production and leaves them2
 
vulnerable to drought. Much of the earth stable year-round supply resides in aquifers, some of which formed over thousands of years and are not being replenished. In ones which are, the extraction far exceeds what the annual rains provide. In California, which  provides half of America’s fruits and vegetables, like Quetta, aquifers are overdrawn. InIndia , a 1996 report found that in critical farming regions the water table was dropping  precipitously, and jeopardizing perhaps as much as one-fourth of the country’s grainharvest.Similar conditions afflictChina, andPakistan.The worlds urban populationis expected to double to 5 billion by 2025, which will further increase diversion of water fromagriculture to the city. This will exacerbate the rural to urban migration, and overallfood  production.
[5]
Pakistan, like the rest of the developing world is headed for serious water shortage in thenear future. The current drought in Sindh and Balochistan has highlighted this long-developing problem. In the 50s, Quetta was consideredPakistan’s prime orchard, capableof providing fruit for the country and export. Rising population, over-use of groundwater, and natural droughts, now threaten the existence of its remaining growing areas.
Health is influenced by different environmental and social determinants such as, income,employment, exposure to agents in air, soil, access to food and water particularly in themountainous and desert area
.Millennium Development Goal number 7, target 10 aims to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basicsanitation. Water scarcity could threaten progress to reach this target.
A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of scabies in Karachi, Pakistanduring 1996-97. Results revealed that the prevalence of scabies was greater in adults thanin children in both years. It also revealed that the prevalence was higher in females thanin males in 1996; this situation altered in 1997. Maximum incidence was observed duringwinters. It was concluded that scabies is a common health problem in Pakistan.
Rationale
There is a dearth of major research regarding the water washed diseases such as trachomaand scabies and associated behavioral patterns and practices that make the peoplevulnerable for acquiring the diseases in Pakistan. The purpose of this study is to explorethe extent and factors responsible for contracting the diseases. This study also intends toidentify and collect evidence regarding any concrete out come like any revolving fund for  provision of adequate water supply safe drinking water for the community. This studywill also yield recommendations from the data collected and at the end the wholecommunity can be benefited by formulation of policies. The majority of research studiesfocused on common water borne diseases but unfortunately little work is done particularly on Water washed diseases which are caused by water scarcity and poor hygienic conditions such as trachoma and scabies.3

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