Water is an essential resource for life and good health. A lack of water to meet dailyneeds is a reality today for one in three people around the world. Globally, the problem isgetting worse as cities and populations grow, and the needs for water increase inagriculture, industry and households
.Almost one fifth of the world's population (about 1.2 billion people) lives in areas wherethe water is physically scarce. One quarter of the global population also live indeveloping countries that face water shortages due to a lack of infrastructure to fetchwater from rivers and aquifers
Water which is most important among all above mentioned factor is as important for survival as blood is to life: So elemental it goes unnoticed until it dries up or bursts itsarteries; so essential we die fighting for it. In a sobering forecast of life in the twenty-firstcentury water scarcity in the next century will lead to brutal wars, many over what wecalls "the most important fluid of the twenty-first century
Common diseases related to poor water, sanitation and unsafe hygiene practices are:Cholera, hepatitis A, dysentery, giardiasis, polio, e-coli, diarrhea, typhoid, salmonellafood poisoning, guinea worm, intestinal parasites like hookworm and tapeworm, scabiesand trachoma.
Water scarcity can lead to diseases such as trachoma (an eye infection that can lead to blindness), plague, typhus and scabies.
Trachoma is the main cause of preventable blindness in the developing world, with four million sufferers, an estimated 500 millionat risk and six million permanently blinded. It is common in areas that are hot, dry anddusty and where there is not enough water for people to wash regularly. Scabies occurs inareas where there is a lack of water and people are unable to wash themselves, their clothes, bedclothes or houses regularly.
In a study conducted in 1991 in Brazil, it was revealed that 7.2% of the population hadevidence of one or more signs of trachoma.
Global and Pakistan Situation regarding water shortage
Viewed from space, our planet seems flushed with water. Yet most of the earth’s blueness is the ocean, too salty for humans and agriculture. Only about 2.5 percent of thewater is freshwater, and two-third of that is locked in glaciers and icecaps. Less than one-hundredth of one percent is drinkable and renewed each year through precipitation.
The amount available per person has fallen steadily. It has dropped by about 60% since1950, as the population climbed from 2.5 billion to 6 billion, a will fall and additional 33 percent within fifty years if our numbers reach 9 billion, the middle of the projectedrange. As expected, the shortage affects mainly the poor. More than a billion people lack potable water, and nearly 3 billion lack even minimal sanitation. The World HealthOrganization estimates that 250 million cases of water-related diseases such as choleraarise annually, resulting in 5-10 million deaths. Intestinal worms infect some 1.5 billion people, killing nearly 100,000 a year. Tens of millions of poor farming families cannotafford to irrigate their land, which lowers their crop production and leaves them2