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Matrices Definition

Matrices Definition

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Published by shantan02
It contains all type matrices definitions..
It contains all type matrices definitions..

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Published by: shantan02 on Dec 17, 2009
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 Anti-diagonal matrix
Inmathematics, an
anti-diagonal matrix
is amatrixwhere all the entries are zero except thoseon the diagonal going from the lower left corner to the upper right corner (
), known as the anti-diagonal.More precisely, an
-by-
matrix
A
is an anti-diagonal matrix if the (
,
 j 
) element is zero for all
,
 j 
 
 {1, …,
} with
+
 j 
 
 
+ 1.An example of an anti-diagonal matrix isAll anti-diagonal matrices are alsopersymmetric.The product of two anti-diagonal matrices is adiagonal matrix 
Augmented matrix
Inlinear algebra, the
augmented matrix
of amatrixis obtained by changing a matrix in someway.Given the matrices
A
and
, where:Then, the augmented matrix (
A
|
) is written as:This is useful when solvingsystems of linear equationsor the augmented matrix may also beused to find the inverse of a matrix by combining it with theidentity matrix.
 
Band matrix
Inmathematics, particularlymatrix theory, a
band matrix
is asparse matrix, whose non-zeroentries are confined to a diagonal
band 
, comprising the main diagonal and zero or morediagonals on either side.Formally, an
×
matrix
A
=(
i,j 
) is a
band matrix
if all matrix elements are zero outside adiagonally bordered band whose range is determined by constants
1
and
2
:The quantities
1
and
2
are the
left 
and
right 
 
half-bandwidth 
, respectively. The
bandwidth 
ofthe matrix is
1
+
2
+ 1 (in other words, the smallest number of adjacent diagonals to whichthe non-zero elements are confined).A band matrix with
1
=
2
= 0 is adiagonal matrix; a band matrix with
1
=
2
= 1 isatridiagonal matrix; when
1
=
2
= 2 one has apentadiagonal matrixand so on. If oneputs
1
= 0,
2
=
−1, one obtains the definition of an uppertriangular matrix; similarly,for
1
=
−1,
2
= 0 one obtains a lower triangular matrix.
Conjugate transpose
"Adjoint matrix" redirects here. An adjugate matrix is sometimes called a "classical adjoint matrix".
Inmathematics, the
conjugate transpose
,
Hermitian transpose
, or
adjoint matrix
of an
-by-
 matrix 
A
withcomplexentries is the
-by-
matrix
A
*
obtained from
A
by takingthetransposeand then taking thecomplex conjugateof each entry (i.e. negating their imaginary parts but not their real parts). The conjugate transpose is formally defined bywhere the subscripts denote the
,
 j 
-th entry, for 1
 
 
 
and 1
 
 j 
 
 
, and the overbardenotes a scalarcomplex conjugate. (The complex conjugate of
a
+
bi
, where
and
arereals, is
a
bi
.)This definition can also be written aswhere denotes the transpose and denotes the matrix with complexconjugated entries.Other names for the conjugate transpose of a matrix are
Hermitian conjugate
,or
transjugate
. The conjugate transpose of a matrix
A
can be denoted by any of thesesymbols:
 
or , commonly used inlinear algebra 
(sometimes pronounced "
A
 dagger"), universally used inquantum mechanics 
, although this symbol is more commonly used for theMoore-Penrosepseudoinverse In some contexts, denotes the matrix with complex conjugated entries, and thusthe conjugate transpose is denoted by or .
Example
Ifthen
Diagonal matrix
Inlinear algebra, a
diagonal matrix
is asquare matrixin which the entries outside themain diagonal(
) are all zero. The diagonal entries themselves may or may not be zero. Thus, thematrix D = (d
i,j
) with n columns and n rows is diagonal if:For example, the following matrix is diagonal:The term
diagonal matrix 
may sometimes refer to a
rectangular diagonal matrix
,which is an
-by-
matrix with only the entries of the form
i,i 
possibly non-zero; forexample,, or

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