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A Guide to GIS Applications

A Guide to GIS Applications

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Published by: isaac abdo on Dec 18, 2009
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Emergency Planning College
 A Guide to GIS Applications
in Integrated Emergency Management
 
A Guide to GIS Applications in Integrated Emergency Management
1
Version 1.0
This is version 1.0 of this guide, issued on November 30
th
2005. Revised versions (as theyare published) will be available on the Emergency Planning College websitewww.epcollege.gov.uk
Summary Version of the Guide
 A summary version of this guide, intended for senior staff and those only requiring afamiliarity with the key issues, will be published by the Emergency Planning College early in2006. This will be available for download from the EPC websitewww.epcollege.gov.uk
The author 
This guide has been authored by Dr Robert MacFarlane, Visiting Fellow at the EmergencyPlanning College and Director of the Centre for Environmental and Spatial Analysis (CESA)at Northumbria University.
Referencing this document
This document should be referenced as:MacFarlane, R. (2005).
 A Guide to GIS Applications in Integrated Emergency Management 
,Emergency Planning College, Cabinet Office.
Note on the Use of Mapping in Scenarios
In addition to a series of case studies, a number of hypothetical scenarios are used in thisguide and Ordnance Survey Strategi
TM
data are combined with fictional data to illustratethese scenarios. However, no backdrop mapping is used as the scenarios are not intendedto be place-specific. Perseverance would of course allow a reader to identify which area thedata relate to, but they are intended to remain generic and so assumptions about theavailability or accuracy of the data must not be made.
Acknowledgements
 A large number of people in a wide range of agencies supported the writing of thisdocument, supplying material for case studies, providing illustrations and discussing andhelping to formulate the ideas. There are too many to mention by name, andacknowledgements of source are given where relevant in the text, but sincere thanks go toall who supported the project.
 
A Guide to GIS Applications in Integrated Emergency Management
2
Contents
 
Page NoGlossary of Abbreviations 4
1.0 Introduction 6
1.1 Aim of the Guide 61.2 The Demand for Information 61.3 Integrated Emergency Management and the 5 C’s 8
2.0 Emergencies and Disasters 113.0 Integrated Emergency Management 154.0 The Civil Contingencies Act 17
4.1 The Civil Contingencies Act 174.2 Information Sharing 19
5.0 Data, Information and Decision making 20
5.1 Introduction 205.2 Data, Information and Communication 205.3 Models of Decision Making 24
6.0 GIS: an overview 28
6.1 Introduction 286.2 The Key Functions of a GIS 326.2.1 Data Integration 326.2.2 Data Analysis (i): Querying 376.2.3 Data Analysis (ii): Spatial Analysis 386.2.4 Data Modelling 456.2.5 Data Mining 466.2.6 Terrain Analysis 476.2.7 Information Outputs and Cartographic Standards 48
7.0 GIS Applications in Integrated Emergency Management 53
7.1 Anticipating and Assessing Risks 537.1.1 Case Study: Risk Assessment in the Insurance Industry 547.1.2 Case Study: River Flooding and Storm Surge 557.1.3 The Role of Public Facing Systems 567.1.4 Case Study: Surrey Alert 587.2 Preventing Emergencies 607.2.1 Case Study: Integrated Risk Management Planning in SFRS 607.3 Preparing for Emergencies 627.3.1 Case Study: Preparing for Severe Weather Emergencies 647.4 Responding to Emergencies 677.4.1 Introduction 677.4.2 Case Study: Radioactive Waste Entering the Water Supply 677.4.3 Case Study: Chemical Fire and Resultant Atmospheric Pollution 707.4.4 GIS Applications in Slow-Onset Health Emergencies 727.4.5 Mobile GIS 747.4.6 Case Study: Automatic Vehicle Location System 75

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