3.Inhibition of nitric oxide, leading to increased arterial pressure and systemicvascular resistance in animals
Progressive vasodilation leads to the activation of vasoconstrictor and antinatriureticmechanisms, both in an attempt to restore normal perfusion pressures. Mechanisms involvedinclude the renin-angiotensin system, sympathetic nervous system, and antidiuretic hormone(vasopressin). The ultimate effect is sodium and water retention. In the late stages of cirrhosis,free water accumulation is more pronounced than the sodium retention and leads to a dilutionalhyponatremia. This explains why cirrhotic patients with ascites demonstrate urinary sodiumretention, increased total body sodium, and dilutional hyponatremia, a challenging concept tomany physicians.
Cirrhosis is a chronic medical condition of liver abandoning the usual biochemical functioning of liver in the body. Cirrhosis is resulted from the surrogation of the liver tissues by regenerativenodules and fibrotic scar nodules that lead to the progressive loss of biochemical function of theliver. The common causes of Cirrhosis are hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B; Wilson's disease,autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, alcoholism etc. and this become a crucialhealth problem of the mankind.The nodule formation and fibrosis lead to the alteration of the ordinary liver structure whichobstructs the blood flow throughout the liver is the condition of Cirrhosis. Cirrhosis also leads toan incapability of performing liver biochemical functions. The pathophysiology of cirrhosis, thenormal and anatomy of the liver provide the better understanding of the hazards of Cirrhosis. Theliver is an important organ in the animal body where also where metabolism of toxins and drugsincluding alcohol are carried out.The biochemical functions of liver includes the synthesis of blood clotting factors, secretion andsynthesis of albumin, the chief blood protein, secretion of bile and modification of itscomponents. In addition, cholesterol metabolism and the conversion of fats and proteins intoglucose like primary biochemical functions are also performed by the liver. Thus liver plays animportant role in the functioning of the human body and deterioration in its functioning like bycirrhosis is of major biomedical concern and diagnosing the disease and immediate treatment isthe best solution.Liver biopsy through a transjugular, percutaneous, fine-needle or laparoscopic approach is the best way to diagnose cirrhosis. On the basis of the results obtained from the histological studiescirrhosis can be divided into macronodular, micronodular, or mixed, but it is unfocused to theetiology and these may loss with the progress of the disease and serological sign are greatlyspecific. If the laboratory, clinical, and radiological records suggests cirrhosis them there is norequirement of going for liver biopsy.The only treatment of liver cirrhosis is the elimination of the causes and preventingcomplications of the disease. There is no such treatment to get the liver cirrhosis reversed back tothe original healthy liver. Abstaining from alcoholism, timely treatment of hepatitis associatedcirrhosis and other cirrhosis causing diseases are the ways for eliminating cirrhosis. If the causeis Wilson's disease then chelation therapy for removing the copper that build up in the body bythis disease is effective.Medications including antibiotics are the best ways of preventing the complications of cirrhosisdue to different causes. If the complications outbreaks the limit of control then liver transplantation is preferable. With advancement in the biomedical sciences the chances of