Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Stuttering 2

Stuttering 2

Ratings: (0)|Views: 64|Likes:
Published by Demosten

More info:

Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: Demosten on Dec 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/24/2010

pdf

text

original

 
Irwin,M(2006).Terminology–HowShouldStutteringbeDefined?andWhy?PublishedinJ.Au-Yeung&M.M.Leahy(Eds.),Research,Treatment,andSelf-HelpinFluencyDisorders:NewHorizons(pp.41-45).Dublin:TheInternationalFluencyAssociation. Abstract
Thewordstutteringiscurrentlyusedtodescribedysfluentspeech,aspeechsyndromeandthesymptomsofaspeechdisorder.Thisisconfusingresultingindifficultieswithpublicawarenessandprofessionalcommunication.Existingdictionarydefinitionsareverylimitedinscope,donotmentioncovertbehaviour,anddonotalwayscrossreferencestutteringwithstammering.Academicdefinitionswheretheyarecomprehensivearealsocumbersomeandthereisconfusionbetweenthetermscovertfeatures,covertsymptoms,covertstutteringandinteriorizedstuttering.Anewdefinition,classificationanddiagnosticterm(StutteredSpeechSyndrome)areproposed.Theaimistoprovideclarityandallowstutteringtobemoreeasilyandaccuratelydiscussedfromboththelistenersandthespeakersperspective.
1.Introduction
Areviewofstutteringliteratureoverthelast50yearsshowsthewordstutteringtohaveavarietyofmeanings.Generallyitisusedtodescribeatypeofdysfluentspeech,butitisalsousedtodescribeaspeechsyndrome(Cooper,1993)(Guntupallietal.,2006)andalsotodescribesymptomsofaspeechdisorder(MooreandRigo,1983).Thisleadstolackofclaritywithstutteringdefinitionsthatinturnleadstodifficultieswithpublicawareness,difficultiesincommunicationbetweenmembersofthespeechpathologyprofession,anddifficultiesincommunicationbetweenspeechpathologistsandtheirclients.Acommonlyagreedandcomprehensivedefinitionwouldbringunderstandingaswellasincreasingthesophisticationofdiagnosisandappropriatenessofappliedtreatmentmodalitiestopeoplewhostutter.Iusemyownpersonalstoryinprovidinganexampleofhowimprovedlabelingandawarenesswouldhelpdiagnosisandtreatment.FormanyyearsIsharedaclassroomwithaboywithanobviousstuttermarkedbyrepetitionsandprolongations.Thisboywasteasedbutoutwardlyconfidentenoughtoaskquestionsinclass.OntheotherhandInevervoluntarilyspokeinclassknowingthatifItriedtospeakIwouldblock.OccasionallyIhadtorespondtoquestionsandtheoccasionalblockwouldoccurinspiteofmyattemptswithsubstitutionandcircumlocution.Myclassmatewasthoughttohaveaseverestutter.Iwasnot.IfIdidnothaveaseverestutter,thenwhatdidIhave?Certainlymystutter/stammerwasnotdescribedinadictionarythenornow,norisitcurrentlyclearlydescribedonthewebsitesofthevariousstutteringassociationsthroughouttheworld.Sincethissamesituationaffectsmanypeoplewhostutter,covertbehaviourandassociatedphobicreactionsneedtobemorecloselyconnectedtostuttering.Alsoitisalsoimportanttorecognisethatacovertstutterer’sspeechpatternmayremaineventhoughtherearenolongernegativeattitudinalandemotionalreactionstostuttering.Thatisspeechlikeotherhumanactivitybecomeshabitualandavoidanceofcertainwordsand
 
soundsmayremainevenwhenthereisnolongeraninabilitytoarticulatethem.Itisclearanappreciationofcovertstutteringbyparents,teachersandspeechlanguagepathologistswouldalsogiveguidancetotheseverityofthedisorder,theconsequentemotionalimpactandtheneedforcounselingandtherapy.Anewdefinitionofstutteringandtheapplicationofcommonlyusedlabelswouldgoalongwaytoachievingthisawareness.
2.CurrentSituation
Thereisnodoubtthecurrentsituationislimitingandconfused.LittlehashappenedsinceCulattaandGoldberg(1995)concludedthatif10speech–languagepathologistswereputinaroom,11differentdefinitionsofstutteringwouldemerge.Thisislargelybecausethereisconfusionoverthetermcovertwhenappliedtostuttering.Shapiro(1999)referstocovertasinternalizedthoughtsandfeelings.Gregory(1986)referstocovertfeaturesofstutteringastheexpectationofdifficultyandfrustration,whichleadtoavoidanceandinhibitorybehaviours.MooreandRigo(1983)refertocovertsymptomsofstutteringandGuntupallietal(2006)refertocovertformsofstuttering.InadditionfollowingtheworkofDouglasandQuarrington(1952)Britishcommonwealthcountriesusethelabel“interiorized”tosignifymaskedstuttererswhoarecurrentlyalsoreferredtoascovertorclosetstutterers.HoweveritisclearthecovertfeaturesofexpectationofdifficultyandfrustrationmentionedbyShapiroandGregoryalsomayapplytobothinteriorizedandexteriorizedstammerers,andassuchacleardistinctionbetweencovertfeaturesandcovertbehaviourneedstobedrawn.Thatiscovertbehaviourisaspeechevent.Thespeakeravoids,substitutesorcircumlocuteasawaytohideanovertstutter.Ontheotherhandfrustrationandanticipationofdifficultyareemotionalreactionstospeechevents.Itisnotnecessarytolabeltheseascovertfeaturessincewewouldexpectemotionstobehiddenfromview.Inanycasethewordcovertisusuallyappliedtogivethemeaningofsecretiveordeliberatelyhiddenasopposedtothesimplemeaningofhidden.Describingemotionalresponsesascovertintroducesinaccuracy.Emotionalresponsesmaybecovertiftheyaresecretiveordeliberatelyhidden,buttheycannotberegardedascovertsimplybecausetheyarenotonview.Alsonotallpeoplewhodemonstratecovertstutteringbehaviourwillhavenegativeemotionalreactionsconsistentwithdiagnosisofsocialphobia,soaseparationofthesetermsallowsgreateraccuracywithdiagnosis.Whiledictionarydefinitionsareexpectedtobelimiteditcanbearguedthattheproblemswithcurrentdictionarydefinitionsintermsofpublicawarenessofthestutteringconditionarethattheyonlydefinestutteringfromthelistenersperspective,theydonotmentioncovertbehaviour,orrefertothepotentiallynegativeemotionalimpactthatstutteringhasonthespeaker.Inadditiontheydonotcrossreferencestutterandstammer.Considertwodictionarydefinitionsasexamplesofthis.1.Stutter‐(verb)1.touttersoundsinwhichtherhythmisinterruptedbyblocksorspasms,repetitionsorprolongationsofsoundsorsyllables,sometimesaccompaniedbyfacialcontortions.‐(noun)2.distortedspeechcharacterizedprincipallybyblocksorspasmsinterruptingtherhythm.(MacquarieDictionary)
 
2.Stammer–(verb)tospeakwithinvoluntarybreaksandpausesorwithspasmodicrepetitionsofsyllablesorsounds.(OxfordDictionary)Academicdefinitionswhileshowinganunderstandingofstutteringareofteneithervagueorcumbersome.Theydonotspecificallymentioncovertstutteringanduseverygeneraltermswhendescribingtheattitudinalandemotionalcomponents.Exampleswithcommentsfollow:1.“Stutteringisadiagnosticlabelreferringtoaclinicalsyndromecharacterizedmostfrequentlybyabnormalandpersistentdysfluenciesinspeechaccompaniedbycharacteristicaffective,behaviouralandcognitivepatterns.Cooper(1993,p.382)”.Comments:thecharacteristicaffective,behaviouralandcognitivepatternsarenotdescribed.Thisisimportantbecausewithoutitthestatementistoovagueasallhumanconsciousbehaviourhascharacteristicaffective,behaviouralandcognitivepatterns.2.“Stutteringistheinvoluntarydisruptionofacontinuingattempttoproduceaspokenutterance.Perkins(1990,p.376)”Comments:Thereisnoreferencetocovertbehaviour(wordavoidancesubstitutionandcircumlocution)whichifusedbythespeakerresultsinnosuchdisruptioninaspokenutterance.3.“Stutteringisadisorderwhichaffectsthefluencyofspeechproduction.Thismayalsoaffecttheindividualsattitudetocommunicationandtothemselves.Disordersoffluencyareusuallycharacterizedbybothovertfeatureseg.blocking,andcovertfeatureseg.avoidancebehavioursandfeelingssuchasanxiety.RCSLT(1996,p.177)”.Comments:Adistinctionbetweenthecovertformofstuttering(wordavoidance,substitutionandcircumlocution)andthecovertfeaturesofavoidanceandanxietyisnotmade.Thisisimportantsinceovertstutteringandcovertstutteringmaybothbeassociatedwithavoidancebehavioursandfeelingssuchasanxiety.4.“Stutteringreferstoindividualizedandinvoluntaryinterruptionsintheforwardflowofspeechandlearnedreactionstheretointeractingwithandgeneratingassociatedthoughtsandfeelingsaboutone’sspeech,oneselfasacommunicator,andthecommunicativeworldinwhichwelive.Shapiro(1999,p.14)”.Comments:Aswiththepreviousdefinitionthereisnocleardistinctionbetweenovertandcovertstuttering.Inadditionthereisnoclearreferencetothenegativepsychosocialimpactofinvoluntarydisruptionsandthepossibilitythatthisnegativepsychosocialimpactmaynotnecessarilybepresentinallpeoplewhostutter.Insummaryitseems:*Dictionarydefinitionsdescribestutteringfromthelistenersperspectiveonly.*Mostdefinitionsdonotcrossreferencestutteringandstammering.*Manyacademicdefinitionsdonotdirectlymentioncovertbehaviour*Thereisconfusionbetweencovertfeaturesofstutteringandcovertstutteringbehaviour.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->