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Using 6502 Assembly Language by Randy Hyde

Using 6502 Assembly Language by Randy Hyde



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Published by Moe B. Us
With an Introduction to Sweet-16
by Randy Hyde
With an Introduction to Sweet-16
by Randy Hyde

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Published by: Moe B. Us on Apr 03, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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HOW TO PROGRAM THE APPLE IIUSING 6502ASSEMBLY LANGUAGEWith an Introduction to Sweet-16DATAMOSTby Randy HydeApple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.DATAMOST8943 Fullbright Ave., Chatsworth, CA 91311 (213) 709-1201cover*****************************************************************USING 6502ASSEMBLYLANGUAGE*****************************************************************USING 6502 ASSEMBLYLANGUAGEHow Anyone Can Program the Apple IIBy Randy HydeA Product ofDATAMOST, INC.8943 Fullbright AvenueChatsworth, CA 91311(213) 709-12021st Printing October 19812nd Printing December 1982*****************************************************************-ACKNOWLEDGMENTS-This book represents many hours of dedicated work by myselfand everyone involved in its generation. While their names do notappear on the cover, special credit is due to David Gordon, LarryBouyer, and my wife Mandy. The management and marketingefforts by Dave made this book possible (although it took a longtime...). Larry and Mandy transformed a computer program-mer's "illiterate" rough draft into this document. Many thanks alsoto Glynn Dunlap, whose wonderful cartoons added greatly to thisbook. I owe these four people a great deal.
The material included in Appendix A is reproduced with thepermission of Apple Computer, Inc. It is originally printed in "TheApple II Reference Manual" copyrighted by Apple Computer.Thanks is hereby given to Apple Computer for allowing repro-duction herein.COPYRIGHT (C) 1981 BY DATAMOSTThis manual is published and copyrighted by DATAMOST. Allrights are reserved by DATAMOST. Copying, duplicating, sellingor otherwise distributing this product is hereby expressly forbid-den except by prior written consent of DATAMOST.The word APPLE and the Apple logo are registered trademarksof APPLE COMPUTER, INC.APPLE COMPUTER, INC. was not in any way involved in thewriting or other preparation of this manual, nor were the factspresented here reviewed for accuracy by that company. Use ofthe term APPLE should not be construed to represent any en-dorsement, official or otherwise, by APPLE COMPUTER, INC.i*****************************************************************TABLE OF CONTENTSNOTEAn alphabetical index is located in the back of this manual.Chapter 1INTRODUCTION 1-1Purpose of Manual 1-1Scope of Manual 1-1General 1-1Chapter 2SYMBOLISM 2-1General 2-1Bit Strings 2-3Binary Arithmetic 2-8Unsigned Integers 2-9Nibbles (NYBBLES?), Bytes, and Words 2-10Signed Integers 2-11Hexadecimal Numbers 2-13Radix and Other Nasty Diseases 2-14ASCII Character Set 2-14Using Bit Strings to Represent Instructions 2-16Chapter 3REGISTERS, INSTRUCTION FORMATS,AND ADDRESSING 3-1General 3-1Accumulator (A or ACC) 3-3X-Register (X) 3-3
Y-Register (Y) 3-3Stack Pointer (SP) 3-4Program Status Word (P or PWS) 3-4Program Counter (PC) 3-4Instruction Format (6502) 3-4Two and 3-Byte Instructions 3-66502 Addressing Modes 3-8iii*****************************************************************Chapter 4SOME SIMPLE INSTRUCTIONS 4-1General 4-1Assembly Language Source Format 4-1Introduction to Real Instructions 4-4Register Increments and Decrements 4-8Labels and Variables 4-9Expressions in the Operand Field 4-11Chapter 5ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 5-1General 5-1Example Program 5-2JMP Instruction 5-3Processor Status (P) Register 5-5Break Flag (B) 5-6Decimal Flag (D) 5-6Interrupt Disable Flag (Z) 5-6Condition Code Flags (N, V, Z, C) 5-7Branch Instructions (6502) 5-9Loops 5-10Comparisons 5-11IF/THEN Statement Simulation 5-14FOR/NEXT Loop Revisited 5-14Testing Boolean Values 5-18Chapter 6ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS 6-1General 6-1Unsigned Integer (Binary) Arithmetic 6-1Subtraction 6-4Signed Arithmetic 6-5Signed Comparisons 6-7Binary Coded Decimal Arithmetic 6-8Unsigned BCD Arithmetic 6-8Signed BCD Arithmetic 6-10Arithmetic Review 6-10iv*****************************************************************Chapter 7SUBROUTINES AND STACK PROCESSING 7-1

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