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Drugs Addiction

Drugs Addiction

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It is the document about addiction of drugs. The presentation is also available about this. Check it..
It is the document about addiction of drugs. The presentation is also available about this. Check it..

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Published by: Khawaja Naveed Haider on Dec 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Submitted To:Mohammed Azhar PervaizDate: November 16, 2007
Drugs Addiction
Drug addiction is a condition characterized by compulsive drug intake, craving andseeking, despite what the majority of society may perceive as the negative consequencesassociated with drug use.Although being addicted implies drug dependence, it is possible to be dependent on adrug without being addicted. People that take drugs to treat diseases and disorders,which interfere with their ability to function, may experience improvement of theircondition.Such persons are dependent on the drug, but are not addicted. One is addicted, ratherthan merely dependent, if one exhibits compulsive behavior towards the drug and hasdifficulty quitting it. To qualify as being dependent a person must Take a drug regularlyExperience unpleasant symptoms if discontinued, which makes stopping difficult.Substance abuse can occur with or without dependency, and with or without addiction.Substance abuse is any use of a substance, which causes more harm than good.
History Of Drugs:
 The phenomenon of drug addiction has occurred to some degree throughout recordedhistory, though modern agricultural practices, improvements in access to drugs,advancements in biochemistry, and dramatic increases in the recommendation of drugusage by clinical practitioners have exacerbated the problem significantly in the 20thcentury. Improved means of active biological agent manufacture and the introduction of synthetic compounds, such as methamphetamine are also factors contributing to drugaddiction.
Components Of Drugs:
Drug addiction has two components: physical dependency, and psychologicaldependency. Physical dependency occurs when a drug has been used habitually and thebody has become accustomed to its effects. The person must then continue to use thedrug in order to feel normal, or its absence will trigger the symptoms of withdrawal.Psychological dependency occurs when a drug has been used habitually and the mindhas become emotionally reliant on its effects, either to elicit pleasure or relieve pain, anddoes not feel capable of functioning without it. Its absence produces intense cravings,which are often brought on or magnified by stress. A dependent person may have eitheraspects of dependency or both."Chipping" is also a term used to describe a pattern of drug use in which the user is notphysically dependent and sustains 'controlled use' of a drug. This is done by avoidinginfluences that reinforce dependence, such that the drug is used for relaxation and not forescape. This is similar to the medical term 'recreational substance use'.
Addictive Nature:
 The addictive nature of drugs varies from substance to substance, and from individual toindividual. Drugs such as codeine or alcohol, for instance, typically require many moreexposures to addict their users than drugs such as heroin or cocaine. Likewise, a personwho is psychologically or genetically predisposed to addiction is much more likely tosuffer from it.Although dependency on hallucinogens like LSD ("acid") and psilocybin (key hallucinogenin "magic mushrooms") is listed as Substance-Related Disorder in the DSM-IV, most
psychologists do not classify them as addictive drugs. Experts on addiction say that theuse of LSD and psilocybin causes neither psychological nor physical dependency. Manyusers report feeling less desire to use these drugs after every use.
The Basis For Addiction:
 There is a growing viewpoint that drug addiction is a form of dysfunctional learning. Drugsof abuse take over the neurological circuitry involved in motivation and reward. This leadsto aberrant learning. Because of this, drug-associated cues can trigger a desire to use, aswell as unconscious or compulsive drug-seeking behavior, with the sense that voluntarycontrol over drug use is lost. The stages of problematic use could be defined as preoccupation/anticipation,binge/intoxication, and withdrawal/negative effect.[3] As drugs activate neuronalpathways in the brain, they get 'laid down' stronger and stronger with each use. Thesepathways also activate faster with each use. The quicker the effect, or 'high', the strongerthe dysfunctional learning. In addition, objects, people, or places also seem to be stronglyassociated with the drug experience, making them 'triggers' to 'cravings' and increasethe chances of further use. Those that favor the biological models of addiction see theseneuron-chemical changes in the brain as evidence that addiction is a disease, thoughresearch has shown that this learned behavior can be unlearned. Unfortunately,substance abuse also inhibits further learning, meaning continued use makes unlearningmore challenging.Abused drugs can also modulate long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression(LTD) in neuronal circuits associated with the addiction process, suggesting a way for thebehavioral consequences of drug-taking to become reinforced by learning mechanisms.[4] Effectively assessing where an individual is in addiction and tailoring treatment to thiswould make treatment outcomes more effective. This may be why there have been nooutstanding results in terms of treatments for addiction with the most significant factor inrecovery being the user therapist relationship. In addition to determining where someoneis in terms of addiction, indications as to where they are in their current cycle of use:Crash, withdrawal or extinction would also inform appropriate treatment interventions.Animal studies have shown that drug availability (over and above the actual effects of thesubstance) are associated with stimuli exposure to objects associated with use; thesetrigger the release of adrenaline (which causes "fight or flight" response). The excitationcan be perceived as a 'need' to use.Glutamate, Dopamine, and Serotonin have long been associated with highly dependentaddictions are well established as key to the compulsive behavior related to cocaine andamphetamine use, Nor epinephrine, GABA& NMDA are also very important in terms of learning and 'Addiction' With GABA seeming strong in terms of alcohol abuse and thecorresponding crash.

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