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Wide Area Network

Wide Area Network

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Published by s.reegan
computer network
computer network

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Published by: s.reegan on Dec 20, 2009
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03/26/2014

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WIDE AREA NETWORK 
Wide Area Network 
(
WAN
) is acomputer network thatcovers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications linkscross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries
). This is incontrast with personal area networks(PANs),local area networks  (LANs),campus area networks(CANs), or metropolitan area  networks(MANs) which are usually limited to a room, building,campus or specific metropolitan area (e.g., a city) respectively. Thelargest and most well-known example of a WAN is theInternet.WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networkstogether, so that users and computers in one location cancommunicate with users and computers in other locations. ManyWANs are built for one particular organization and are private.Others, built byInternet service providers, provide connections froman organization's LAN to the Internet. WANs are often built usingleased lines. At each end of the leased line, arouter connects to the LAN on one side and a hub within the WAN on the other. Leasedlines can be very expensive. Instead of using leased lines, WANs canalso be built using less costlycircuit switchingor  packet switching  methods. Network  protocolsincludingTCP/IPdeliver transport and addressing functions. Protocols includingPacket over SONET/SDH,MPLS,ATMandFrame relayare often used by service providers to deliver the links that are used in WANs.X.25was an important early
 
WAN protocol, and is often considered to be the "grandfather" of Frame Relay as many of the underlying protocols and functions of X.25are still in use today (with upgrades) by Frame Relay.Academic research into wide area networks can be broken down intothree areas:Mathematical models,network emulationandnetwork   simulation.Performance improvements are sometimes delivered viaWAFSor WAN optimization.Several options are available for WAN connectivity:
Transmission rate usually range from 1200 bps to 6 Mbps, althoughsome connections such as ATM and Leased lines can reach speedsgreater than 156 Mbps. Typical communication links used in WANsare telephone lines, microwave links & satellite channels.Recently with the proliferation of low cost of Internetconnectivitymany companies and organizations have turned toVPNtointerconnect their networks, creating a WAN in that way. Companiessuch asCisco, New Edge Networks andCheck Pointoffer solutions to create VPN networks.
 
WAN X.25
 
 
X.25 network diagram.
X.25
is anITU-Tstandard protocol suite for  packet switched wide  area network (WAN) communication. An X.25 WAN consists of  packet-switching exchange(PSE) nodes as the networking hardware,andleased lines,Plain old telephone serviceconnections or ISDN  connections as physical links. X.25 is a family of protocols that wasused especially during the 1980s bytelecommunications companies and infinancial transactionsystems such asautomated teller   machines. X.25 was originally defined by theInternational Telegraph  and Telephone Consultative Committee(CCITT, now ITU-T) in aseries of drafts
and finalized in a publication known as
The Orange Book 
in 1976.

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