present day of student of crystal growth, the crystal is a chemical compound in the shapeof a solid polyhedron bounded by definite planes. Their shape and symmetry is amanifestation of the internal atomic arrangements extending in three dimensions, in anorderly way. Nowadays crystal growth technology is largely on crystals such as NLO crystals, piezo-electric crystals, Ferro-electric crystals, sensitive crystals and crystalline films.Preparation of single crystals of such materials has resulted in growing realization for theimportance of crystal growth, in the theoretical and experimental aspects. The preparation of single crystal is mainly based on the availability and nature of the startingmaterials and their physico-chemical properties. Fields as diverse as physics, chemistry,chemical engineering, mineralogy and biology have contributed much to the field of crystal growth, also these fields benefited from crystal growth. Crystal growth concepthas been fundamental to many areas of science and technology.We can grow crystals in any one of the following four transformations. [Pamplin,B.R., 1979].1.Solid-state reaction involving solid-solid phase transition.2.Solution growth process involving Liquid-solid phase transition.3.Vapour growth process involving vapour-solid phase transition.4.Melt growth process involving liquid- solid phase transition.The general condition for all the above mentioned process is that the growingcrystals must have lower free energy than the initial state of the system.
1.1 SOLID GROWTH TECHNIQUES
Solid state growth requires atomic diffusion except in case of martenstictransformations. At normal temperatures such diffusion is usually very slow except in thecase of superionic materials where the small cation is quite mobile. Thus solid stategrowth techniques are seldom employed when other methods can be used. Fig. 1.1 showsthat most of these techniques were known and used before 1900 and compared with theother growth methods, have not been changed very substantially this century. Solid stategrowth techniques for the production of single crystal are of very small significance;however, annealing, heat treatment, sintering, and quenching are, of course,