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Mechanical Measurements

Mechanical Measurements

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Published by captainhass
Mechanical Measurements
Mechanical Measurements

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Published by: captainhass on Dec 20, 2009
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08/30/2010

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Mechanical MeasurementsModule 41. Thermo-physical properties2. Radiation properties of surfaces3. Gas concentration4. Force or Acceleration, Torque, PowerModule 4.11
.
Measurement of thermo-physical properties
In engineering applications material properties are required for accurateprediction of their behaviour as well for design of components and systems. Theproperties we shall be interested in measuring are those that may be referred togenerally as transport properties. The properties that we shall be interested inhere are:
a. Thermal conductivityb. Heat capacityc. Calorific value of fuelsd. Viscositya)
 
Thermal conductivity
 
Thermal conductivity may be measured by either steady state methods orunsteady (transient) methods.
(i) Steady state methods
o
Guarded hot plate method
Solid, Liquid
o
Radial heat flow apparatus
Liquid, Gas
o
Thermal conductivity comparator
SolidSteady state methods normally involve very large measurement times since thesystem should come to the steady state, possibly starting from initial roomtemperature of all the components that make up the apparatus. Also maintainingthe steady state requires expensive controllers and uninterrupted power andwater supplies.
(ii) Unsteady method
o
Laser flash apparatus
SolidEven though the unsteady methods may be expensive because of stringentinstrumentation requirements the heat losses that plague the steady satemethods are not present in these. The entire measurement times may be from afew milliseconds to seconds or at the most a few minutes.Thermal conductivity is defined through Fourier law of conduction. In the case ofone-dimensional heat conduction the appropriate relation that defines the thermalconductivity is
 
Qq AT  x x
= =
 
(1)
 In Equation 1 k is the thermal conductivity in W/m
°
C, q is the conduction heat fluxin W/m
2
along the x direction given by the ratio of total heat transfer byconduction Q and area normal to the heat flow direction A and T represents thetemperature. In practice Equation 1 is replaced by
Q A
δ 
=Δ
 
(2)
Here |
Δ
T| represents the absolute value of the temperature difference across athickness
δ
of the medium. Several assumptions are made in writing the above:
Heat conduction is one dimensional
The temperature variation is linear along the direction of heat flow
The above assumption presupposes that the thermal conductivity is aweak function of temperature or the temperature difference is verysmall compared to the mean temperature of the mediumWith this background, the following general principles may be enunciated, thatare common to all methods of measurement of thermal conductivity:
Achieve one dimensional temperature field within the medium
Measure heat flux
Measure temperature gradient
Estimate thermal conductivity
In case of liquids and gases suppress convection
Parasitic losses are reduced/ eliminated/estimated andare accounted for – in all cases

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