is entropy calculated relative to the absolute reference point determined by the third lawof thermodynamics.
Absolute or specific humidity
(also called humidity ratio) is the mass of water vapour present in a unit mass of dry air;that is, it is the ratio of the mass of water vapour to the mass of dry air in atmospheric air.
is the actual pressure at a given position and it is measured relative to absolute vacuum(i.e., absolute zero pressure). Throughout this text, the pressure
will denote absolute pressure unless specified otherwise.
Absorption refrigeration systems
involve the absorption of a refrigerant by a transport medium. The most widely usedabsorption refrigeration system is the ammonia-water system, where ammonia (NH
)serves as the refrigerant and water (H
O) as the transport medium. Absorptionrefrigeration systems are economically attractive when there is a source of inexpensiveheat energy at a temperature of 100 to 200 °C. Some examples of inexpensive heatenergy sources include geothermal energy, solar energy, and waste heat fromcogeneration or process steam plants, and even natural gas when it is available at arelatively low price.
Adiabatic flame or adiabatic combustion temperature
is the maximum temperature the products of combustion will reach in the limiting case of no heat loss to the surroundings during the combustion process. The adiabatic flametemperature attains its maximum value when complete combustion occurs with thetheoretical amount of air.
is a process during which there is no heat transfer. The word adiabatic comes from theGreek word
, which means not to be passed.
Adiabatic saturation process
is the process in which a steady stream of unsaturated air of unknown specific humidity is passed through a long insulated channel that contains a pool of water. As the air flowsover the water, some water will evaporate and mix with the airstream. The moisturecontent of air will increase during this process, and its temperature will decrease, since part of the latent heat of vaporization of the water that evaporates will come from the air.If the channel is long enough, the airstream will exit as saturated air (100 percent relativehumidity) at the exit temperature.