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The Effects of a School-wide Behaviour Management Programme on Teachers' Use of Encouragement in the Classroom

The Effects of a School-wide Behaviour Management Programme on Teachers' Use of Encouragement in the Classroom

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This article was downloaded by:[University of Warwick]On:11 September 2007Access Details:[subscription number 758810059]Publisher:RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
Educational Studies
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713415834
The Effects of a School-wide Behaviour ManagementProgramme on Teachers' Use of Encouragement in theClassroom
Alan Bain
a
;Stephen Houghton
a
; Sally Williams
aa
Department of Education, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Perth,Western Australia 6009, AustraliaOnline Publication Date:01 January 1991To cite this Article:Bain, Alan,Houghton, Stephen and Williams, Sally (1991) 'TheEffects of a School-wide Behaviour Management Programme on Teachers' Use ofEncouragement in the Classroom', Educational Studies, 17:3, 249 - 260To link to this article: DOI:10.1080/0305569910170303URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305569910170303PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLEFull terms and conditions of use:http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdfThisarticlemaybeusedforresearch,teachingandprivatestudypurposes.Anysubstantialorsystematicreproduction,re-distribution,re-selling,loanorsub-licensing,systematicsupplyordistributioninanyformtoanyoneisexpresslyforbidden.Thepublisherdoesnotgiveanywarrantyexpressorimpliedormakeanyrepresentationthatthecontentswillbecompleteoraccurateoruptodate.Theaccuracyofanyinstructions,formulaeanddrugdosesshouldbeindependentlyverifiedwithprimarysources.Thepublishershallnotbeliableforanyloss,actions,claims,proceedings,demandorcostsordamageswhatsoeverorhowsoevercausedarisingdirectlyorindirectlyinconnectionwithorarising out of the use of this material. © Taylor and Francis 2007
 
   D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   B  y  :   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   W  a  r  w   i  c   k   ]   A   t  :   1   5  :   3   8   1   1   S  e  p   t  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   0   7
Educational Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1991
249
The Effects
of a
School-wideBehaviour Management Programmeon Teachers'
Use of
Encouragementin
the
Classroom
ALAN BAIN, STEPHEN HOUGHTON
&
SALLY WILLIAMS
Department
of
Education,
The
University
of
Western Australia, Nedlands, Perth,Western Australia 6009, Australia
SUMMARY
The
purpose
of
this study
was to
examine
the
effectiveness
of a
whole schoolbehaviour management programme
on
teachers'
use of
encouragement
in the
classroom. Giventhat the performance
of
the school
has
become
an
important dependent variable
in
school effectsresearch,
it
follows that interventions which address behaviour management
and the
improve-ment
of
academic performance, have also taken
on a
school-wide focus
or
orientation.
In
Australia, where this study
was
conducted, there
has
been
an
increased interest
in the use of
school-wide behaviour management
and
discipline programmes, which
are
characterized
by
their focus
on
improving teachers' classroom management skills.
In
the present study randomlyselected teachers from schools involved
in a
school-wide behaviour management programmeparticipated
in an
experimental evaluation
of the
effects
of the
programme. Continuous datacollection indicated that
the
majority
of
teachers made increases
in
their
use of
encouragement
over
the
course
of
the intervention. However, observations conducted during
a
follow-up phaserevealed reductions
in
levels
of
encouragement following
the
withdrawal
of
the intervention.
Introduction
The school-based development of expectations for academic and social behaviourand the clear communication of those expectations to the school community havebeen consistently identified as characteristics of effective schools (Rutter
et al.,
1979;
Lasley & Wayson, 1982; Edmonds, 1982). While the significance of thesecharacteristics has prompted considerable interest in strategies for responding tobehaviour problems in schools (e.g. codes of discipline, suspension and exclusion,timeout procedures), more importantly it has also prompted consideration of thetype of teacher and student behaviour that is predictive of both high levels ofstudent academic achievement and positive social behaviour. Such factors as theconsistent use of reinforcement and feedback (Perrott, 1982), clear communicationof academic expectations (Rutter
et al.,
1979) and the management and use of
 
   D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   B  y  :   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   W  a  r  w   i  c   k   ]   A   t  :   1   5  :   3   8   1   1   S  e  p   t  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   0   7
250
Alan Bain
et al.instructional time (Sanford & Evertson, 1982) have been identified as importantfactors in improving student, teacher and subsequent school performance. Thesystematic use of reinforcement and encouragement, for example, have beenrecognized not only as prerequisites for improving the academic performance ofstudents, but also for their contribution to the development of patterns of behaviourwhich are incompatible with disruption and low levels of academic engagement onthe part of both students and teachers.Importantly, the school effectiveness movement has encouraged an examinationof the role of variables correlated with positive academic and social behaviour froma school-wide perspective where the effects and implications of efforts to modify orimprove teacher and student behaviour have been considered with regard to theirschool organizational and management implications (e.g. McCormack-Larkin, 1985;Lasley & Wayson, 1982). It is important to emphasize, however, that any general-ized conclusions about change at the school level, must first be based upondemonstrated change in the more basic units of analysis, that is, effects onindividual teacher and/or student behaviour. A major goal of school effects re-search, therefore, should be to clarify the functional relationship between the resultsof school reform interventions and the nature and implementation of those reforms.Such clarification would provide more specific information on the effects associatedwith different school reform innovations and in doing so would serve to guideprogrammes of change in schools.Given that the performance of the school has become an important dependentvariable in school effects research, it follows that interventions which addressbehaviour management and the improvement of academic performance, have alsotaken on a school-wide focus or orientation. In Australia, for example, there hasbeen an increased interest in the use of school-wide behaviour management anddiscipline programmes, which are characterized by their focus on improving teachers'classroom management skills, reducing the variability in behavioural expectationsacross
staff,
increasing teacher participation in decision making about behaviouralexpectations, reducing subsequent levels of disruption in school and improvingacademic performance.While school-wide interventions in this area are not new (e.g. Canter & Canter,1976) it is important to acknowledge that there has been limited research on theireffects. In addition, the available research has often focused on attitudinal variables(e.g. teacher perceptions of levels of disruption and stress, Moffet, Jurenka &Covan, 1982; Webb, 1984) as opposed to examining programme effects on actualstaff and student behaviour. One exception to this being the objective evaluations inthe UK of the Behavioural Approach to Teaching Packages (Wheldall & Merrett,
1985;
Wheldall
et al.,
1989). The purpose of the present study was to examine theeffects of a school-wide behaviour change package known as the Managing StudentBehaviour (MSB) programme (Hamilton, 1986) on teachers' use of encouragingresponses in their interactions with students.The MSB programme consists of a series of workshop sessions on topicsrelated to preventing and responding to behaviour management problems. Topicsinclude: analyzing disruptive incidents, being positive in the classroom, communi-

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