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Gear Trains

# Gear Trains

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Published by: Luis Balducci on Dec 21, 2009

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06/12/2013

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A. BASIC CONCEPTS1.0 VELOCITIES IN GEAR TRAINS1.1 Introduction
Gear trains and speed reducers are mechanical components often used for obtaining a desiredangular velocity of an output shaft, while the input shaft rotates at a different angular velocity.The angular-velocity ratio between input and output members must usually remain constant. Thevalue of this ratio can be adjusted in some arrangements (usually with a friction or hydraulicdrive and/or clutch arrangement), while in others the ratio is not adjustable. In order, therefore,to design or select a gear train or speed reducer, one of the first tasks Is the determination of the angular velocities. This will now be considered.
1.2 Single Gear Mesh
Figures 1, 2 show simple spur-gear meshes with the gears meshing externally (Figure 1) orinternally (Figure 2) on fixed centers.Let
ω
1
= angular velocity of gear #1,
ω
2
= angular velocity of gear #2,N
1
= number of teeth on gear #1;N
2
= number of teeth on gear #2.positive counterclockwise;positive counterclockwise;In the external mesh (Figure 1) the gears rotate in opposite directions while in the internalmesh (Figure 2) the gears rotate in the same direction. This means that if the angular velocity,
ω
1
, is positive, angular velocity
ω
2
will be negative in Figure 1 and positive in Figure 2.
Figure 1 Externally Meshing Spur Gears
T58

Figure 2 Internally Meshing Spur Gears
The angular velocity ratio, Z
21
, is defined as the ratio of the angular velocity of gear #2 tothat of gear #1, with appropriate attention to sign. Thus:In Figure 1,Z
21
=
ω
2
= - N
1
(1)
ω
1
N
2
and in Figure 2,Z
21
=
ω
2
= N
1
(2)
ω
1
N
2
The opposite signs on the right-hand sides of eqs. (1, 2) follows from the fact that in theexternal mesh the gears rotate In opposite directions, while in the internal mesh they rotate inthe same direction, as has been stated before.In bevel gears the situation is similar, but the angular velocity vectors lie on intersecting,rather than parallel axes.Figure 3 shows an externally meshing bevel gear pair. The notation Is the same as in Figures1, 2, except for the angular velocity vectors,
ω
1
and
ω
2
These are defined as follows.Let 0 be the point of intersection of the two shaft axes. Then the positive directions of theangular velocity vectors,
ω
1
,
ω
2
, are directed outward from point 0. The magnitudes of theangular velocity vectors,
ω
1
,
ω
2
, are denoted by
ω
1
,
ω
2
respectively.The direction of rotation of a bevel gear is then obtained from the right-hand rule, asillustrated in Figure 4: if the angular velocity vector,
ω
1
, is as shown, the direction of rotation of the associated bevel gear corresponds to that of a right-handed screw advancing in the directionof vector
ω
i
.The angular velocity ratio, Z
21
, in Figure 3 is again given by:Z
21
=
ω
2
in magnitude. (3)
ω
1
T59

Figure 3 Externally Meshing Bevel GearsFigure 4 Right-hand Rule
For externally meshing bevel gears, one angular velocity vector is directed away from 0, whilethe other angular velocity vector is directed towards 0. The case of spur gears may be regardedas a special case in which point 0 recedes to infinity.

The angular velocities in helical and worm gears can be analyzed by similar reasoning. Fordetails the reader is referred to paragraphs 5.9.4 and 8.5, respectively, in the Section on GEARS.
1.3 Simple Spur-Gear Trains
In a simple gear train, such as shown in Figure 5, only one gear is mounted on each shaft.Suppose the i
th
gear (i = 1, 2, 3,......., n) has N teeth and rotates with angular velocity,
ω
i
,measured positive counterclockwise. Then the angular velocity ratio, Z
j1
, of the j
th
gear relativeto the first gear is given by:Z
ji
= w
j
= ± N
i
(4), wherew
1
N
j
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