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Introduction
1.1 Importance of Heat Transfer
1.2 Heat Transfer Modes
1.3 The Laws of Heat Transfer
1.4 Formulation of Heat Transfer Problems
1.4.1 Heat transfer from a plate exposed to solar heat ﬂux
1.4.2 Incandescent lamp
1.4.3 Systems with a relative motion and internal heat generation
1.5 Heat Conduction Equation
1.6 Boundary and Initial Conditions
1.7 Solution Methodology
1.8 Summary
1.9 Exercise
Bibliography
Some Basic Discrete Systems
2.1 Introduction
2.2.1 Heat ﬂow in a composite slab
2.2.2 Fluid ﬂow network
2.2.3 Heat transfer in heat sinks (combined conduction–convection)
2.2.4 Analysis of a heat exchanger
2.3 Transient Heat Transfer Problem (Propagation Problem)
2.4 Summary
2.5 Exercise
The Finite Element Method
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Elements and Shape Functions
3.2.1 One-dimensional linear element
3.2.3 Two-dimensional linear triangular elements
3.2.4 Area coordinates
3.2.7 Isoparametric elements
3.2.8 Three-dimensional elements
3.3 Formulation (Element Characteristics)
3.3.1 Ritz method (Heat balance integral method - Goodman’s method)
3.3.2 Rayleigh–Ritz method (Variational method)
3.3.3 The method of weighted residuals
3.3.4 Galerkin ﬁnite element method
3.4 Formulation for the Heat Conduction Equation
3.4.1 Variational approach
3.4.2 The Galerkin method
3.5 Requirements for Interpolation Functions
3.6 Summary
3.7 Exercise
Steady State Heat Conduction in One Dimension
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Plane Walls
4.2.1 Homogeneous wall
4.2.2 Composite wall
4.2.3 Finite element discretization
4.3.1 Cylinder with heat source
4.4 Conduction–Convection Systems
4.5 Summary
4.6 Exercise
Steady State Heat Conduction in Multi-dimensions
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Two-dimensional Plane Problems
5.2.1 Triangular elements
5.3 Rectangular Elements
5.4 Plate with Variable Thickness
5.5 Three-dimensional Problems
5.6 Axisymmetric Problems
6.2 Lumped Heat Capacity System
6.3 Numerical Solution
6.3.1 Transient governing equations and boundary and initial conditions
6.3.2 The Galerkin method
6.4 One-dimensional Transient State Problem
6.4.1 Time discretization using the Finite Difference Method (FDM)
6.4.2 Time discretization using the Finite Element Method (FEM)
6.5 Stability
6.6 Multi-dimensional Transient Heat Conduction
6.7 Phase Change Problems—Solidiﬁcation and Melting
6.7.1 The governing equations
6.7.2 Enthalpy formulation
6.8 Inverse Heat Conduction Problems
6.8.1 One-dimensional heat conduction
6.9 Summary
6.10 Exercise
Convection Heat Transfer
7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 Types of ﬂuid-motion-assisted heat transport
7.2 Navier–Stokes Equations
7.2.1 Conservation of mass or continuity equation
7.2.2 Conservation of momentum
7.2.3 Energy equation
7.3 Non-dimensional Form of the Governing Equations
7.3.1 Forced convection
7.3.2 Natural convection (Buoyancy-driven convection)
7.3.3 Mixed convection
7.4 The Transient Convection–diffusion Problem
7.4.1 Finite element solution to convection–diffusion equation
7.4.2 Extension to multi-dimensions
7.5 Stability Conditions
7.6 Characteristic-based Split (CBS) Scheme
7.6.1 Spatial discretization
7.6.2 Time-step calculation
7.6.3 Boundary and initial conditions
7.6.4 Steady and transient solution methods
7.7 Artiﬁcial Compressibility Scheme
7.8 Nusselt Number, Drag and Stream Function
7.8.1 Nusselt number
7.8.2 Drag calculation
7.8.3 Stream function
7.9 Mesh Convergence
7.10 Laminar Isothermal Flow
7.10.1 Geometry, boundary and initial conditions
7.10.2 Solution
7.11 Laminar Non-isothermal Flow
7.11.1 Forced convection heat transfer
7.11.2 Buoyancy-driven convection heat transfer
7.11.3 Mixed convection heat transfer
7.12 Introduction to Turbulent Flow
7.12.1 Solution procedure and result
7.13 Extension to Axisymmetric Problems
7.14 Summary
7.15 Exercise
Convection in Porous Media
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Generalized Porous Medium Flow Approach
8.2.1 Non-dimensional scales
8.2.2 Limiting cases
8.3 Discretization Procedure
8.3.1 Temporal discretization
8.3.2 Spatial discretization
8.3.3 Semi- and quasi-implicit forms
8.4 Non-isothermal Flows
8.5 Forced Convection
8.6 Natural Convection
8.6.1 Constant porosity medium
8.7 Summary
8.8 Exercise
Some Examples of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Problems
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Isothermal Flow Problems
9.2.2 Transient ﬂow
9.3 Non-isothermal Benchmark Flow Problem
9.3.1 Backward-facing step
9.4 Thermal Conduction in an Electronic Package
9.5 Forced Convection Heat Transfer From Heat Sources
9.6 Summary
9.7 Exercise
Implementation of Computer Code
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Preprocessing
10.2.1 Mesh generation
10.2.2 Linear triangular element data
10.2.3 Element size calculation
10.2.4 Shape functions and their derivatives
10.2.5 Boundary normal calculation
10.2.6 Mass matrix and mass lumping
10.2.7 Implicit pressure or heat conduction matrix
10.3 Main Unit
10.3.1 Time-step calculation
10.3.2 Element loop and assembly
10.3.3 Updating solution
10.3.4 Boundary conditions
10.4 Postprocessing
10.4.1 Interpolation of data
10.5 Summary
Finite Element Assembly Procedure
Simpliﬁed Form of the Navier–Stokes Equations
Index
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Fundamentals of the Finite Element Method for Heat and Fluid Flow - Lewis Nithiarasu

Fundamentals of the Finite Element Method for Heat and Fluid Flow - Lewis Nithiarasu

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08/18/2013

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