Starch is found in almost every typical meal from the Northern Hemisphere. Generally this isused in the preparation of breads, cakes, biscuits etc. Other famous serials as foods are rice, corn,Kurakkan and sorghum.Starch is a polysaccharide (meaning "many sugars") made up of glucose units linked together toform long chains. The number of glucose molecules joined in a single starch molecule variesfrom five hundred to several hundred thousand, depending on the type of starch. Starch is thestorage form of energy for plants, just as glycogen is the storage form of energy for animals. Theplant directs the starch molecules to the amyloplasts, where they are deposited to form granules.Thus, both in plants and in the extracted concentrate, starch exists as granules varying indiameter from 2 to 130 microns. The size and shape of the granule is characteristic of the plantfrom which it came and serves as a way of identifying the source of a particular starch.The structure of the granule of grain is crystalline with the starch molecules orienting in such away as to form radially oriented crystals. This crystalline arrangement is what gives rise to thephenomenon of birefringence. When a beam of polarized light is directed through a starchgranule, the granule is divided by dark lines into four wedge-shaped sections. This cross-hatching or cross is characteristic of spherocrystalline structures.There are two types of starch molecules amylose and amylopectin. Amylose averages 20 to 30percent of the total amount of starch in most native starches. There are some starches, such aswaxy cornstarch, which contain only amylopectin. Others may only contain amylose. Glucoseresidues united by a 1,4 linkage form the linear chain molecule of amylose. Amylose is the linearfraction and amylopectin is the branched fraction. Amylose molecules contribute to gelformation. This is because the linear chains can orient parallel to each other, moving closeenough together to bond. Probably due to the ease with which they can slip past each other in thecooked paste, they do not contribute significantly to viscosity. The branched amylopectinmolecules give viscosity to the cooked paste. This is partially due to the role it serves inmaintaining the swollen granule. Their side chains and bulky shape keep them from orientingclosely enough to bond together, so they do not usually contribute to gel formation. Differentplants have different relative amounts of amylose and amylopectin. These different proportionsof the two types of starch within the starch grains of the plant give each starch its characteristicproperties in cooking and gel formation.Gluten is the protein in wheat, plays the main role in the bakery industry. At the mixing withwater gliadins and glutanine interact and give the Gluten, which has cohesive elastic properties.Further, gluten that is formed inside the
dough trap the CO
formed by yeast and expand thedough. This is the most significant property of wheat flour when compared with other cerealflours. When boil, starch granules absorb water which results in the swelling of granule and burstin to a gel. This is called gelatinization.