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Advanced Quantum Mechanics

Advanced Quantum Mechanics

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Advanced Quantum Mechanics
Peter S. RiseboroughJune 4, 2009
Contents
1 Introduction 52 Quantum Mechanics of a Single Photon 6
2.1 Rotations and Intrinsic Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.2 Massless Particles with Spin Zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.3 Massless Particles with Spin One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3 Maxwells Equations 14
3.1 Vector and Scalar Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.2 Gauge Invariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4 Relativistic Formulation of Electrodynamics 19
4.1 Lorentz Scalars and Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194.2 Covariant and Contravariant Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214.3 Lorentz Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244.4 Invariant Form of Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5 The Simplest Classical Field Theory 29
5.1 The Continuum Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345.2 Normal Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355.3 Rules of Canonical Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385.4 The Algebra of Boson Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405.5 The Classical Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6 Classical Field Theory 41
6.1 The Hamiltonian Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436.2 Symmetry and Conservation Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446.2.1 Conservation Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446.2.2 Noether Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466.2.3 Noethers Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476.3 The Energy-Momentum Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
 
7 The Electromagnetic Lagrangian 51
7.1 Conservation Laws for Electromagnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . 557.2 Massive Spin-One Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
8 Symmetry Breaking and Mass Generation 61
8.1 Symmetry Breaking and Goldstone Bosons . . . . . . . . . . . . 628.2 The Kibble-Higgs Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
9 Quantization of the Electromagnetic Field 65
9.1 The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689.2 Quantizing the Normal Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709.2.1 The Energy of the Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729.2.2 The Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739.2.3 The Momentum of the Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759.2.4 The Angular Momentum of the Field . . . . . . . . . . . . 779.3 Uncertainty Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 829.4 Coherent States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849.4.1 The Phase-Number Uncertainty Relation . . . . . . . . . 899.4.2 Argand Representation of Coherent States . . . . . . . . . 90
10 Non-Relativistic Quantum Electrodynamics 91
10.1 Emission and Absorption of Photons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9410.1.1 The Emission of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9410.1.2 The Dipole Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9610.1.3 Electric Dipole Radiation Selection Rules . . . . . . . . . 10010.1.4 Angular Distribution of Dipole Radiation . . . . . . . . . 10910.1.5 The Decay Rate from Dipole Transitions. . . . . . . . . . 11510.1.6 The 2
 p
1
s
Electric Dipole Transition Rate. . . . . . . . 11710.1.7 Electric Quadrupole and Magnetic Dipole Transitions. . . 12010.1.8 The 3
d
1
s
Electric Quadrupole Transition Rate . . . . 12410.1.9 Two-photon decay of the 2
s
state of Hydrogen. . . . . . . 12710.1.10The Absorption of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13410.1.11The Photoelectric Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13910.1.12Impossibility of absorption of photons by free-electrons. . 14210.2 Scattering of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14410.2.1 Rayleigh Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14810.2.2 Thomson Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15110.2.3 Raman Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15510.2.4 Radiation Damping and Resonance Fluorescence . . . . . 15610.2.5 Natural Line-Widths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15910.3 Renormalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16110.3.1 The Casimir Eect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16210.3.2 The Lamb Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17410.3.3 The Self-Energy of a Free Electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17610.3.4 The Self-Energy of a Bound Electron . . . . . . . . . . . . 18010.3.5 Brehmstrahlung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1842
 
11 The Dirac Equation 191
11.1 Conservation of Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19611.2 Covariant Form of the Dirac Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19711.3 The Field Free Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19911.4 Coupling to Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20611.4.1 Mott Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20711.4.2 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21011.4.3 The Gordon Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21211.5 Lorentz Covariance of the Dirac Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21511.5.1 The Space of the Anti-commuting
γ 
µ
-Matrices. . . . . . . 22611.5.2 Polarization in Mott Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23411.6 The Non-Relativistic Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23711.7 Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24011.8 Conservation of Parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24211.9 Bi-linear Covariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24611.10The Spherically Symmetric Dirac Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 25011.10.1The Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26511.10.2Lowest-Order Radial Wavefunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . 27411.10.3The Relativistic Corrections for Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . 27511.10.4The Kinematic Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28111.10.5Spin-Orbit Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28211.10.6The Darwin Term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28811.10.7The Fine Structure of Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28911.10.8A Particle in a Spherical Square Well . . . . . . . . . . . 29311.10.9The MIT Bag Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29911.10.10The Temple Meson Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30311.11Scattering by a Spherically Symmetric Potential . . . . . . . . . 30511.11.1Polarization in Coulomb Scattering. . . . . . . . . . . . . 30511.11.2Partial Wave Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30911.12An Electron in a Uniform Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31211.13Motion of an Electron in a Classical Electromagnetic Field . . . . 31511.14The Limit of Zero Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31911.15Classical Dirac Field Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32711.15.1Chiral Gauge Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33011.16Hole Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33311.16.1Compton Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33811.16.2Charge Conjugation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
12 The Many-Particle Dirac Field 347
12.1 Second Quantization of Fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34712.2 Quantizing the Dirac Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34712.3 Parity, Charge and Time Reversal Invariance . . . . . . . . . . . 35112.3.1 Parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35212.3.2 Charge Conjugation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35512.3.3 Time Reversal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35612.3.4 The CPT Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3593

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