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Glossary of Theological, Ethical and Liturgical Terms

Glossary of Theological, Ethical and Liturgical Terms

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Glossary of Theological, Ethical and Liturgical Terms
A
a posteriori 
A term designating that kind of knowledge that issues from experience. See
a priori
.
a priori 
 
Kant used the term
a priori
to designate all principles and judgments whose validityis not dependent in any way on sense impressions. Space, for instance, cannot be apprehendedthrough the senses and being a necessary condition of experience it must be
a priori
. Theopposite term is
a posteriori
: a term that logicians have applied to inductive reasoning (seeInduction and Deduction) and in philosophy generally to the data of the mind that originate inthe external world and are accepted as coming to it through the senses.
a quo
 
A phrase used by the medieval schoolmen to designate the principle or assumption or  presupposition that is taken as the starting point of an argument, contradistinguished from the
ad quem
, its end or goal.
Aaronic Benediction
The familiar blessing that begins, "The Lord bless you and keep you."It is given the name "Aaronic" because it is the blessing God commanded Moses to give to his brother Aaron to speak to the people (Num. 6:24-26).
abba
 
(Aramaic, "Father") An address to God used by Jesus. The Aramaic word is found inMark 14.36, Romans 8.15, and Galatians 4.6; it is a term both of a child's respectful relation toits father and of a confidential relation to an esteemed person.
Abbess
Feminine form of abbot, dating back to 6th cent. An abbess is elected by a communityof nuns as its superior.
Abbey
Building or buildings used (or once used) by a religious order of monks or nuns.
Abbot
(Aramaic
abba
, "father") The head of a Christian monastic community, especially inthe Benedictine or Cistercian traditions.
Abjuration
Solemn renunciation of heresy.
Ablutions
(1) Ritual cleansings to remove impurity and to mark transitions from profane tosacred states, etc. They are often, therefore, associated with rites of passage. In Judaism,ablution is ritual washing intended to restore or maintain a state of ritual purity and is rootedin the Torah. (2) The cleansing of the celebrant's mouth (since the 5th
c.
) and of his fingersand the chalice (since the 9th
c.
) after Communion to insure that all of the consecrated specieshas been consumed.
Absolute
That which exists without any dependence on another being and without anyconditions. In Christian theology, the term applies only to God.
Absolution
Following the confession of sins, the Absolution pronounces God’s forgivenesseither in a direct form ("I absolve/forgive you") or in a declarative form ("God forgives youall yours sins"). The word comes from the Latin,
absolvere
, which means "to loosen, set free,or absolve" (John 20:23).
Absolutions of the Dead
(Lat.
absolutio defunctorum
), an RC rite which once concluded thefuneral liturgy in church. It consisted of a chant asking that the dead person might be freedfrom all sins (often
 Libera me, Domine
) sung while the coffin was sprinkled and censed.
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Abstinence
(Greek 
nisteia
) A penitential practice consisting of voluntary deprivation of certain foods for religious reasons. In the Orthodox Church, days of abstinence are observedon Wednesdays and Fridays, or other specific periods, such as the Great Lent (see
 fasting 
).
Abyss
The Greek word abyssos (‘bottomless [pit]’, ‘deep’) appears 9 times in the NT. It istranslated in
RSV
as ‘abyss’ (the abode of demons, Lk. 8:31; the place of the dead, Rom. 10:7)and ‘bottomless pit’ (the place of torment, Rev. 9:1-2, 11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1, 3).
Acathistus
(Lat., from Greek 
akathistos
 
 sc.
[
hymnos
], “not sitting,” i. e., standing; Akathist).Byzantine liturgical hymn or office, sung standing, in honor of Mary, another saint, or Christ.
Accentus
The chanting of parts of a liturgical service by the officiant. The counterpart chantof the congregation is called concentus. The melodic variations in chanting are governed bytraditional rules. See also
 Psalm Tones
.
Acceptilation
Term taken from Roman law by J. Duns Scotus to denote an atonement, not because it is in itself an equivalent but because God determines to accept it as such.
Accident
A term used by Aristotle to designate a mode of being whose nature is to inhere insome other being, designated a substance; e.g., the greenness of foliage is said to be a mode of  being inhering as "accident" in the "substance" of the foliage.
Accident
That which does not exist by itself essentially but subsists in another self-existentessence.
Accidie
(Greek 
akēdia
, "indifference") Term used in the Septuagint and later in a modifiedsense to signifiy the spiritual weariness or torpor that at times especially affects monks andnuns.
Accommodation
Most generally refers to changing the rituals, practices, forms, etc. of Christian practice in missionary's culture to fit those of a local culture. Technically, in RomanCatholic circles, it refers to the early Jesuit work in China (especially Ricci from 1583 on) andIndia (deNobili from 1605 on) built on the idea of allowing local cultural elements that areneutral in regard to the Gospel to be brought into the Christian faith.
Accommodation
Term first used in good faith by mystical interpreters of Scripture toindicate that certain passages of Scripture conveyed higher thoughts than mere literalexpressions exhibited.
Acedia
(accidia; accidie;
Greek 
akedia) Sloth; ennui; indifference or repugnance to worship;considered one of the Seven deadly sins.
Acoemetae
(Greek,
akoimētai
= the unsleeping ones) A group of Eastern Orthodox monksfounded c. 400 devoted to poverty, missionary enterprise, and the singing of psalms perpetually in choir, which they achieved by relays changing guard.
Acolyte
Formerly one of the four minor orders, the acolyte today is one of the two official"lay ministries" in the Roman-Catholic Church established in 1972.
Acolyte
Traditionally, the highest of the four minor orders in the Roman Catholic Church.Their duties include lighting the candles, preparing the wine and water for Mass and assistingthe celebrant, deacon, and subdeacon.
Act
The term comes from the Latin
agere
(to do, to act) and corresponds to the Greek term
energeia
, which Aristotle contrasted with
dynamis
(act and potency respectively). The bulb I plant in the garden has the power to become a tulip and is in process of doing so. To the
26725110.doc2
 
extent that it realizes itself by blooming into a tulip it is in
act 
. Everything in the universe,however, is both in potency and in act; only God is simply
energeia
. The medieval schoolmenfollowed Aristotle closely here, calling God
actus purus
(pure act).
acta apostolicae sedis
Official publication of the papal see; formerly Acta sanctae sedis.
acta martyrum
 
Accounts of the trial and death of early martyrs; circulated and often read ontheir birthdays.
Actual grace
derives its name, actual, from the Latin
actualis
(
ad actum
), for it is granted byGod for the performance of salutary acts and is present and disappears with the action itself.Its opposite, therefore, is habitual grace, which causes a state of holiness.
actus dilectionis
In scholastic theology, an act of love to God elicited by natural reason.
actus purus
A Latin term meaning "pure actuality": a state attributed in medieval Christian philosophy to God alone. All other beings are in process of growth and therefore in a state of  potentiality and incompleteness. This distinction was drawn from Aristotle.
ad limina apostolorum
 
(Lat. “to the thresholds of the apostles”). 1. Pilgrimages to thetraditional tombs of Peter and Paul in Rome. 2. Visits by bishops to Rome to venerate thetombs and report to the pope.
Adaptation
refers to finding ways to express the Gospel in forms and ideas that are familiar to the culture. It can range from putting new meaning into indigenous words (e.g., the Greek word
logos
was taken by John and invested with new meaning in his Gospel) to the adaptationof liturgy (e.g., baptismal or eucharistic practices) to changing church polity to fit localcultural leadership ideals.
Adherents
In the Scottish church those who wish to be affiliated without becoming fullcommunicants may be enrolled as adherents.
Adiaphora
A Greek word meaning 'things indifferent'; it refers to matters not regarded asessential to faith which might therefore be allowed, if the 'weaker brother' found them helpful.In particular the Adiaphorists were those Protestants who with Melanchthon held certainCatholic practices (e.g. confirmation, veneration of saints) to be tolerable for the sake of unity; controversy continued over what were adiaphora until the Formula of Concord (1577).
Adjuration
(1) The act whereby one person imposes on another the obligation to speak asunder oath; (2) a solemn oath; (3) a solemn or earnest urging or advising.
Adonai
(Heb. “The Lord” or “My Lord”)
 
One of the divine names used in the Hebrew Bible.It is used among Jews as a substitute for the name of God (the unutterable Tetragrammaton,YHWH).
Adoptionism
An eighth-century Spanish heresy that held that, as God, Christ was by naturetruly Son of God but, as man, only God's adopted son. Its chief proponents were Elipandus(ca. 718-802), archbishop of Toledo, and Felix (d. 818), bishop of Urgel. This heresy had precedents in Ebionitism and dynamic Monarchianism, which became associated withAdoptionism through Adolf von Harnack's (1851-1930) study.
Adoration
The highest reverence to be offered only to God (Ex 20:1-4; John 4:23), our creator, redeemer, and sanctifier, who alone should be "worshiped and glorified" (Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed). Believers adore God through various images (e.g., the cross); theyalso adore Christ present in the Eucharist.
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