) A penitential practice consisting of voluntary deprivation of certain foods for religious reasons. In the Orthodox Church, days of abstinence are observedon Wednesdays and Fridays, or other specific periods, such as the Great Lent (see
The Greek word abyssos (‘bottomless [pit]’, ‘deep’) appears 9 times in the NT. It istranslated in
as ‘abyss’ (the abode of demons, Lk. 8:31; the place of the dead, Rom. 10:7)and ‘bottomless pit’ (the place of torment, Rev. 9:1-2, 11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1, 3).
(Lat., from Greek
], “not sitting,” i. e., standing; Akathist).Byzantine liturgical hymn or office, sung standing, in honor of Mary, another saint, or Christ.
The chanting of parts of a liturgical service by the officiant. The counterpart chantof the congregation is called concentus. The melodic variations in chanting are governed bytraditional rules. See also
Term taken from Roman law by J. Duns Scotus to denote an atonement, not because it is in itself an equivalent but because God determines to accept it as such.
A term used by Aristotle to designate a mode of being whose nature is to inhere insome other being, designated a substance; e.g., the greenness of foliage is said to be a mode of being inhering as "accident" in the "substance" of the foliage.
That which does not exist by itself essentially but subsists in another self-existentessence.
, "indifference") Term used in the Septuagint and later in a modifiedsense to signifiy the spiritual weariness or torpor that at times especially affects monks andnuns.
Most generally refers to changing the rituals, practices, forms, etc. of Christian practice in missionary's culture to fit those of a local culture. Technically, in RomanCatholic circles, it refers to the early Jesuit work in China (especially Ricci from 1583 on) andIndia (deNobili from 1605 on) built on the idea of allowing local cultural elements that areneutral in regard to the Gospel to be brought into the Christian faith.
Term first used in good faith by mystical interpreters of Scripture toindicate that certain passages of Scripture conveyed higher thoughts than mere literalexpressions exhibited.
akedia) Sloth; ennui; indifference or repugnance to worship;considered one of the Seven deadly sins.
= the unsleeping ones) A group of Eastern Orthodox monksfounded c. 400 devoted to poverty, missionary enterprise, and the singing of psalms perpetually in choir, which they achieved by relays changing guard.
Formerly one of the four minor orders, the acolyte today is one of the two official"lay ministries" in the Roman-Catholic Church established in 1972.
Traditionally, the highest of the four minor orders in the Roman Catholic Church.Their duties include lighting the candles, preparing the wine and water for Mass and assistingthe celebrant, deacon, and subdeacon.
The term comes from the Latin
(to do, to act) and corresponds to the Greek term
, which Aristotle contrasted with
(act and potency respectively). The bulb I plant in the garden has the power to become a tulip and is in process of doing so. To the