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Circular Concrete Tanks

Circular Concrete Tanks

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Circular
Concrete Tanks
"f
¿,'..
WifhollfPresfressing
5420 Old Orchard Road, Skokie,lIIinois60077-1083
Phone:708l966-6200 • Facsimile:708/966·9781
AA organlzatlon of cemanl manufacturera lo Improve and
extend1he U&e8 af porUand cement and concrete through .
markel developmenl, englneerlng, research, educatlon, and
publlo a~a1rswork.
".~
\.
\\
I
DesignMethods
Two approaches currently exist for the design of
reinforced concrete memkrs:
[MJ
A ~
'P.f
~M
U
..;'~;
" ,-"'~'f.
~, ID'
11
Tank fuiwilh cowr in place ..
Resistance provided by soiI
is ignoced ..
Figurel-Possible loadingconditionsfor apartially
buriedtank
Condition2
U
Bacldil pñor lo adcingtarit COYeI'.
(1) Strength Design, and (2) Allowable Stress De

sign (refetred to in Building Code R~uirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-89) (Revised 1992) Appendix A, as the Alternate Deáign method).

TheiBtrength DesignmethodbecaIi1e, thecom
monIy adoptedprocedure forconventional buUdings
·afterthe 1963revision to the ACI BuiIdingCOde. and
;.
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"
,".. ,_- ':' " "', "-.,, ',"
"
..- ',""
.." ._".'_'._'.. "
re,_ ."': ,~;=
eonstitiltésthe baSicprocedure of design in the'present
AClBúildirig Códe<1\01 31~7~~);~~~~'A1ternate
oesign,m~thOdiliáliappendii. (Api>en~::J\),::::
•. _;~r:
~<' \""~l',f~
~)L-';;;n;,,~,.~j.~):·;r:;
..
f~}'_J ,',/::~~l_:~_.~)/\~.•_::~;
, UIltll recently,.,th~l1§e:of.strength ~sign for mu
nicipal and other facilities was considered mappropri
ate due to the lack of reliabIe assessment of crack
JI"
"llntroductíoni.
f~;:tion.¡Anexample of sorneof the 10ading'.~Jiditions
....
';"~"'Vt.""""~í.'l'J ¡¡j.',{-l".": ..
"•.
,.,r""''/;~'''!.''.:'''.''.'.1".'i'';l"".''i
..
,tbat must be.con sidered..for a paro.
·.all.·.
y.•.
buri
...
···
..
ed.....
'.•
·.tank.
',"·.·.l·S
." --r .•.
~.~<"';.J.'~·
•••
"t.11. '~'.' "'1\; .~'.,~_,_••! .•...
-",.,···-~i,.I/·~ .•'Ji·','-t
-,,..i'L_,,-'.¡,' ..~
,
','
,.
:'--",
'.J_
4:"'·,.~:;.\~,., .•..•..
l.~".".
':
.nye1.ltionalIyreinfoic~~Hnon-prestressed)circulari':;jfshown:in::Fig.,l. ;..The tanlc.must:.be~d~sigi1ciiand
con~te ~Jlaye.been
usedextensiyelyin munici- ':f'detailed lo withstand the forees ftom' each ofthese .{"
,paJ,and industrial facilities far severa! decades. The.
loading conditioos. The tank may alsobc>SUbjécted toJo
design ofthese, structures requires that attention be
uplift forces from hydrostatic pressureon the bottom....
~
givennotonlytostrengthrequirements,buttoservice-
of the slab when the tank is empty. Therefore. it is ~
ability requirements as well. A properlydesigned tank
important for. the design engineer to determine all
must be able to withstand the ~ppliedloads without
pÓssibleloading conditions on the structure. Accord-
cracks that would permit leakage. The goal of provid-
ing to ACI 350. the full effects of the soilloads and
ing a structuralIy· sound tank that will not leak is
water pressure must be designed for without the ben-
achievedbyprovidingtheproperamountanddistribu-
efit of resistanee ofthe loads which could minimize
tion ofreinforcement, theproperspacinganddetailing
the effects of each othér.
of construction joints, and the use of quality concrete
CoIxItion 1
O'
placed using proper constnlction practices.
l8akage test priorlobacldiq.
.
A thorough review of the latest report by ACI
Cornmittee 350 entitledEnvironmental Engineering
Concrete Structures1is essentialin understanding the
design of tanks. The latest edition (1983) of that
document recommends that, unless noted otherwise,
the structural design should conformtoBuilding Code
Requirementsf~r Reinforced Concrete (ACI318-89)
_.
(Revised1992y2.Therefore, a working knowledge of
., ACI 318 is also necessary.
The topics discussed'in this publication are:
'.ot>.Loading Conditions (Section2)
Design Methods (Section 3)
Wall Thickness (Section4)
Reinforcement (Section5)
• Crack Control (Section 6)
•Design ofTank Walls (Sections7 tbÍ'ough13)
• Design of Roof Slabs (Sections 14 through 16)
•Effect ofVariation inWallThickness
(Section 17)
Temperature Variatio~in TankWall~:.
(Section18) ,
,_,~.<_
·,Designof13ase Slabs(Secuon 19),
;;~.Adetailed designexample is,given in Section 20.
,Al.s.
o, a..
t,theend oftbe publicationis alistof refi
..
erences
.. pertaipingt<>. 'tb~'
..
él~sigri8ncÍanalys'¡~of·iáIikS ..., ;'
;'~.';''''''.'--''''';--<'f'
~..1..#",';"'.':
.:¡, .••••.•..
..,..
"'.••'!.J~~ •......•.,~",.. •.",.>.'.
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,-"
i', •. )
::.' ."
Loading,t:;bfúlitidñs'tITmnrrHrf;¡t:<,
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':,"'f~
' ..~,,;.,-::;:
;'i
;~v;.;.
,,:,,~.,.-~:~j_
.~.<~·c:~:?~X~.·l1:,;.!\--~~;;-'1
~;~;:r',
'.'<¡:, :'"
{:,eAtank~~t,~~~igned'toWitl1stancl th~loadsthatit
¡>,:iWilJ):~~,§,~Pj~~.ót.Sh9~g.U1m1YtY,~J)f
.use.~¡B.ut
it
. ""r:ii~eq~Y,"4Ppq~UgF9~i4~dQ~s;dup~g~~~tI11c:-
~;;~;;/¡ij..(JIr.cUMt~r4t)kl'·
'
L:"~; '..
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~;~~~~~~r:t\
.-
Wall Thickness

Typically. in the design of reinforced concrete mem bers. the tensile strength of concrete is ignored. Any significant cracking in a liquid containing tank is unacceptable. For this rtason. it must be assured that the stress in the concrete from ring tension is kept at a minimum to prevent excessive cracking. Neither ACI 350 or ACI 318 provide guidelinesfor the tension carrying capacity'for this conditipn. The allowable tensile strength of concrete is usually bCtween 1% and 12% ofthe coIllpressive'strength.'Avalueof

10% of
.,the.concretestreJ.lgth willbe us(Xiin thispublication.
.•
,"' .. "1.' ",";",' ~ ,',
; ..
' .1:.,"J.
l.__ .. :, .,'. _,'
_, _ ':-. ';_,'
;~::?i~;':~~idirtgioÁcf350:
reinfotSed'éóiiBtefuw8lls 10
" '", t,!"'1Cit:1''.l: ~~-....,\=(-.r.')I';
j¡/~;:;,"",.¡,i- ,~._ ..,t ,_
:,.;¡..t'r.'~",' ,.-:. ~."),r¡: ': :,'-,.' ',:'_'
~::': ~", -.,,.
ft high br taller ,whichare in contilct Withliqwd; shall
havearnmun'
. umthiclcnessofl·2.m· ,'.•'··"'Crc.fcc::,:'1F.
,
. ,.', .,,",
__ ;- .·:'~·f~'f,~'::~~;,},
:'J.;(~-L~,;:·'?f~-it:..:ft,.~;:::,~"
,0,.
' ,_
"
'.:'.'
:!"í"'~-:~,"~r";~'~~"';"!'_?'~l':'
,. .~:'t;,":~_f;w.'~~:~*,~A6-~i~''''~-1'[1ft;!~~E~'\i:,f
-._7::~AsooncretedriesañCfIos'es~~oisiUre:1i·éo~trias·in,
isi2'.é'J~tcThistbbfttmétióif\{drying'shrihkagC);;ñlcronl_
liistfained;'wIDp~úce'tefisne'streSses'tlíáf@i)fexCeed '
, ,
.....
" ..'.'.' -·olthecaliácl~~f~bfC6n~retC''ahd¿ausecracki1íg,!:¡:~ig:".
" .-;":;';;,,;:."',.:;';',;,
,:'-:',":"';·;;;:;:~=;";;;';"ft:::;i;~~:~"'::;1:;::'-,.,
-.'- ,,-.. "-~.,,~::~~~;;
•..
n ...
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..>-'--¡::;':';~",:'J..c.-,:::<~i_j:"_~:jr:',,';",:·.,·"
..
:-i -'-', , '-,
i;-:'-' ..•
Modification1-The load factor to be used for ,

lateralliquid pressure,F, is taken as 1.7 rather than the value of lA specified in ACI 318. This value of 1.7 may be overconservative for some

tanks, since they are filled to the top onlyguring Ieak testing or because of accidenJal'overflow. Since leaktesting usualIyocc~Only,on9Cand

since,.most~ttUlks,are .eqÍrlpPed;,}viihJó,v~Íf1.
oW.,
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pipes,soÍne'-pesigne,rs haveC()~iderP.d~¡ng the
"":"
'.':_ ,.
",_, ,. '. _t,
"_'.
,_,:
.¡,,__ •. .'_..
"_'.. .' '. ~ __
, "'';-',,>. '••••.•" •. ' __
"':'" ~..¡',••J __,"
'.'- _.' ,-, •.
_,".load ·'fact()f~9(:J;.4,¡m,ari,~~mpt~~,~I}SC;I'~~;":
_"""am°uH~)9~;:~~{s~~J,'~M9~i~1Mt,§iWl!~~S,
"
S~~~i~~'~¡~Li\'1~R~~xerl~;\9!~};P~1>Y9!Y9~¡:
. suggests that tank designs meet ACI 350 ..and
. 'therefore, reeoiinherids·the'use·i)f rfloaa factbr of
,..
;.....
-···'~~~i~:::lj;ZZ;~¡~;;~'!~~~;;~;{i;f~:¡~:.;~:;~;;,;r(~;~=~~~'il;
t
'~:
;)¡,¡widths,at¡ervice loads~dTheadyanees'm\thisratea of
Modijiáltion2-The membetSmustDe~si~~t,
;1'
/"Jmowlédg~lÍJí\\th¡'H8Sf,tWOl~~~~I@)jij'.Íhe"-'~':tO~í1!C.ieC¡uired~irength-;U.
11
--
~~é!~~~;
, ,rj~cceptance,of.the'stiength'design
methoo fo(~unici-
J~/V89.1',:A(~1J3S0Jrequires~:that,the'v81tie"of'Ufbei'<1t
palliquid retaining structures in<generatañel circular '.:'f\;.'!'¡iDcreasoobYiisingamultipliercalled thesaniUiry
,
,concrete tanks in particular. The IatestACICOmmit-·
",: coefficieni:n:'The"'sarntary coefficieripwiU'in-
tee 350 report recoIll1llends proceduresfor the use of
crease the design Ioáds to provide a more conser-
both Allowable Stress Design,and Strength Design ,
vative design with Iess cracking. The increased
forliquidretainingstructures.
Thenewrecommenda-
.required strength is given by:
tions by Committee 350 for strength design essentialIy
Required strength= Sanitary coefficientx U
suggest inflated load factors to control service load
..
crack widths to falI in the rangeofO.OO4 in~to 0.OO8where~e
samtary coefficlent equals:
in .•as suggested in a1968 paper by Gogate.3
1.3 forflexure"
,A." •.....
Service state anaIysis of reinforced concrete strtictures
1.65 for direct tension'"
should incIude computations of crack widths and their
1.3 for shear beyond that of the capacity provided by the
long term effects on the structure in tenns of its stability
concrete
andfunctionaIperfonnance. Thepresentstate-of-the-art
WorkingStress Design-ACI350 recornmends tha
of reinforced concrete design lea~ to computations
this altemative design method be in accordance with
which are, at best. a modified form of elastic anaIysis of
ACI 318. ACI 350 implies in its document that the
the composite reinforced steeIlconcrete.system. Due lo
maximum allowable stress for Grade 60 reinforcing
the well known effects of creep. shrinkage. ~olume
steel is 30 ksi. This is considerably larger than the 24
changes. and temperature, all anaIyses of this type. in
ksi aIlowed in Appendix A of ACI 318-89.
tenns of computed stresses ,areindices ofperfonnanceof
the structure and should not be construed to have any
ACI 350 recornmends the aIlowable stress in hoop
more significance than that.
tension for Grade 60 reinforcing steel as 20 ksi and fOle
Grade 40 reinforcing steel as 14 ksi.
The following.discussion describes the alterations in
, the,:design methods of ACI 318 provided by ACI 350.
Strength Design-The load combinations to deter
mine the required strength, U, are given in Section 9.2
of ACI 318-89. ACI 350 requires the following two
modifications to that section.

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