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istorija_racunara

istorija_racunara

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Published by: Društvo pedagoga tehničke kulture Srbije on Dec 21, 2009
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1. Uvod, Istorija kompjutera ..............................................................................................................................31.1. Manualna era ( ? - 1642) ........................................................................................................................31.2. Mehanicka era(1642 - 1890) .................................................................................................................31.3. Elektromehanicka era( 1890 - 1946) ......................................................................................................31.4. KOMPJUTERSKA ERA ..........................................................................................................................41.4.1. 1. generacija (1946 - 58) .................................................................................................................4Karakteristike ............................................................................................................................................4Poznati kompjuteri / dogadjaji ..................................................................................................................41.4.2. 2. generacija (1959 - 64) ..................................................................................................................41.4.3. 3. generacija (1965 - 70) ..................................................................................................................51.4.4. 4. generacija (1971 - danas) ............................................................................................................51.4.5. 5. generacija - Buducnost................................................................................................................62. Predstavljanje podataka ................................................................................................................................72.1. Diskretno predstavljanje podataka .........................................................................................................72.1.1. Kodiranje .........................................................................................................................................72.1.2. Binarno kodiranje .............................................................................................................................72.2. Predstavljanje brojčanih podataka .......................................................................................................... 72.2.1. Predstavljanje cijelih brojeva ............................................................................................................ 82.2.2. Predstavljanje brojeva sa fiksnom tačkom .......................................................................................82.2.3. Predstavljanje brojeva sa pokretnom tačkom ..................................................................................82.3. Predstavljanje nebrojčanih podataka ......................................................................................................82.4. Znakovni (alfanumerički) podaci.............................................................................................................92.5. Logički podaci........................................................................................................................................92.6. Grafički podaci.......................................................................................................................................92.7. Upravljački podaci..................................................................................................................................93. BLOK ŠEMA RAČUNARA ..........................................................................................................................103.1. Struktura računara ................................................................................................................................103.2. Centralni procesor ................................................................................................................................103.3. Operativna memorija ............................................................................................................................103.4. Računari sa upamćenim programom ....................................................................................................113.5. Sprežni sistem ......................................................................................................................................113.6. Ulazno-izlazni podsistem ......................................................................................................................114. Uvodna razmatranja: Arhitektura PC ........................................................................................................... 134.1. Uspjeh PC-a .........................................................................................................................................134.2. PC konfiguracija ..................................................................................................................................134.3. Von Neumann-ov model PC-a ............................................................................................................144.4. Matična ploča (Motherboard) ...............................................................................................................154.4.1. Formati matičnih ploča ...................................................................................................................154.4.2. Logika matične ploče - ROM ........................................................................................................154.4.3. Procedura startovanja računara ....................................................................................................164.4.4. POST ............................................................................................................................................164.4.5. Bootstrap loader ............................................................................................................................174.4.6. CMOS RAM ...................................................................................................................................174.5. Setup program ..................................................................................................................................... 184.5.1. Standardne vrijednosti...................................................................................................................194.5.2. BIOS Feature Setup ......................................................................................................................194.5.3. Izmjena boot sekvence ..................................................................................................................194.5.4. Upravljanje napajanjem .................................................................................................................194.5.5. Zaštita postavljanjem lozinke .........................................................................................................194.6. EFI standard ........................................................................................................................................205. Bus tehnologije, interfejsi ...........................................................................................................................215.1. Uvod, funkcija i podjela sabirnica ........................................................................................................215.2. Sistemska sabirnica ............................................................................................................................225.3. I/O sabirnice .........................................................................................................................................225.3.1. ISA Sabirnice .................................................................................................................................225.3.2. PCI Sabirnice .................................................................................................................................235.3.3. AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) ..................................................................................................245.4. Ostali interfejsi.....................................................................................................................................245.4.1. Interfejsi periferne memorija: IDE, EIDE, SCSI..............................................................................245.5. Interfejsi ulazno/izlaznih uređaja .........................................................................................................255.5.1. Serijski port ...................................................................................................................................255.5.2. Paralelni port .................................................................................................................................265.5.3. USB ...............................................................................................................................................261
 
6. Sistemska memorija .................................................................................................................................... 276.1. Uvod: funkcija, podjela, osobine memorija ..........................................................................................276.2. ROM memorija ....................................................................................................................................276.3. RAM memorija .....................................................................................................................................286.3.1. Tipovi RAM-a .................................................................................................................................286.3.2. Dinamički RAM .............................................................................................................................296.3.3. Statički RAM .................................................................................................................................306.4. Pakovanje memorija ...........................................................................................................................31SIMM .....................................................................................................................................................32DIMM .....................................................................................................................................................326.5. Registarska memorija ...........................................................................................................................326.6. Stek memorija ......................................................................................................................................326.7. Vurtuelna memorija ..............................................................................................................................336.8. HIJERAHIJA MEMORIJE .....................................................................................................................337. Procesor .....................................................................................................................................................347.1. Uvod, standardna arhitektura procesora ............................................................................................347.2. Kako radi CPU? .................................................................................................................................... 367.3. CISC, RISC arhitektura procesora .......................................................................................................397.4. Istorijski razvoj......................................................................................................................................397.5. Napredni procesori ..............................................................................................................................428. Eksterna (periferna) memorija - drives ........................................................................................................438.1. Disketna jedinica - floppy drive ............................................................................................................438.2. Tvrdi disk - hard disk ............................................................................................................................458.2.1. Osnovne karakteristike hard diska .................................................................................................458.2.2. Princip rada .................................................................................................................................... 458.2.3. Kontroler tvrdog diska ....................................................................................................................468.2.4. Performance tvrdog diska ..............................................................................................................468.2.5. Datotečni sistem ............................................................................................................................478.3. Optički mediji........................................................................................................................................488.3.1. Jedinica optickog diska ..................................................................................................................488.3.2. Postupak upisa i citanja podataka sa optickog diska .....................................................................498.3.3. Organizacija podataka na optickom disku ....................................................................................498.3.4. Tipovi CD uređaja ..........................................................................................................................508.4. Višenamjenski digitalni disk – DVD ......................................................................................................509. Video sistem ...............................................................................................................................................519.1. Osnovni pojmovi...................................................................................................................................519.2. Monitori................................................................................................................................................529.3. Grafičke kartice ....................................................................................................................................539.4. Driver- skoro najvažniji dio video sistema ............................................................................................5510. PC zvuk ...................................................................................................................................................5610.1. Kvaliteta zvuka ...................................................................................................................................5710.2. Formati zvučnih fajlova .......................................................................................................................5811. Ulazni uređaji .........................................................................................................................................5911.1. Tastatura ............................................................................................................................................5911.2. Miš .....................................................................................................................................................5911.3. Touchscreen ......................................................................................................................................6012. Izlazni uređaji - štampači.........................................................................................................................6112.1. Laserski štampači ..............................................................................................................................6112.2. InkJet štampači..................................................................................................................................6212.3. Matrični štampači ..............................................................................................................................642
 
1.Uvod, Istorija kompjutera
1.1.Manualna era ( ? - 1642)
Sva izracunavanja vrsena raucno
o
Ruka je prvi uredjaj za izracunavanje
o
Nema memorisanja podataka
Abacusrazvijen u Kini
o
Brz
o
Ogranicena mogucnost memorisanja
1500 izumljen mehanizam sata
1622 William Oughtred izumioslide rule 
1.2.
Mehanicka era(1642 - 1890)
All computation done by by machines and gears
BlaisePascal(1642)
o
Designed first gear based calculator system
o
Automated loom that used wood punch cards
CharlesBabbage(1833)
o
For fun he would try to spot errors in mathematical tables
o
Designed analytical, difference engines (machines)
o
Included input and output devices, processor and storage
o
Could NOT be built because of level of precision needed
o
His ideas laid foundations for today's computers (Input - Process - Output)
o
Electricity availability becoming widespread
Ada ByronLovelace First computer programmer 
1.3.
Elektromehanicka era( 1890 - 1946)
Electricity involved in the use of computational devices
o
Civil servant
o
Created a calculator that used electrical signals to turn gears
o
Used in U.S. Census and reduced the time from 13 years to 6 weeks
o
Created Tabulating Machine Company
o
Telephone availability becoming widespread (1900's)
o
International Business Machines (1924)
o
Thomas Watson took over Tabulating Machine company from Hollerith and changed thename
Mark I(1944)
o
Developed by Howard Aiken (Harvard) and Thomas Watson (IBM) for the Military tocompute missile trajectories and break codes used relays instead of gears
o
Size - 17 m long, 3 m high, 760,000 parts, 500 miles of wire light bulbs represented base 10numbers, every fifteen minutes a bulb would blow
o
Noisey "roomful of old ladies knitting with steel needles
o
First Computer "Bug" found
Zuse(Germany - 1941)
o
Developed first fully functional program-controlled electromechanical digital computer 
o
Prototype developed but Hitler stopped its inception
o
Money put into development of V2 rockets3

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