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Answers to MB0027 Human Resource Management

Answers to MB0027 Human Resource Management

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Published by Arun Gupta

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Published by: Arun Gupta on Dec 22, 2009
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06/28/2010

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Q1.Write a short note on Hawthorne Studies.
 The human relations or behavioral school of management beganin 1927 with a group of studies conducted at the Hawthorne plantof Western Electric, an AT&T subsidiary. Curiously, these studieswere prompted by an experiment carried out by the company’sengineers between 1924 and 1927. Following the scientificmanagement tradition, these engineers were applying researchmethods to answer job-related problems. Two groups were studied to determine the effects of differentlevels of illumination of worker performance. One group receivedincreased illumination, while the other did not. A preliminaryfinding was that, when illumination was increased, the level of performance also increased. Surprisingly to the engineers,productivity also increased when the level of illumination was alsodecreased almost to moonlight levels. One interpretation made of these results was that the workers involved in the experimentenjoyed being the centre of attention; they reacted positivelybecause the management cared about them. Such a phenomenontaking place in any research setting is now called the Hawthorneeffect.As a result of these preliminary investigations, a team of researchers headed by Elton Mayo and F. J. Roethlisberger fromHarvard conducted a lengthy series of experiments extendingover a six year period. The conclusions they reached served asthe bedrock of later developments in the human relationsapproach to management. Among their key findings were thefollowing:
Economic incentives are less potent than generally believedin influencing workers to achieve high levels of output.
Leadership practices and work-group pressures profoundlyinfluence employee satisfaction and performance.
 
Any factor influencing employee behavior is embedded in asocial system. For instance, to understand the impact of payon performance. You also have to understand the climatethat exists in the work group and the leadership style of thesuperior.
Q2.Trace the growth of Trade Union Movement fromFactories Act 1881 to Factories Act 1948.
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF TRADE UNIONS IN INDIA Trade union as per Trade Union Act 1926 – “Any combinationformed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relationsbetween workmen and employers or workmen and workmen oremployers and employers or for imposing restrictive conditions onthe conduct of any trade or business and includes any federationof two or more trade unions”.From the above definition it is clear that Trade union is not just anassociation of the workmen of a factory or a trade or a businessbut also can be formed by officers and managers. Trade unionmovement in India was started and led by philanthropists andsocial organizations and not by the workers.
Bombay Presidency - by servants of India society
Eastern India - by Brahma Samaj
South India centered around Madras - by TheosophicalSociety Trade union is a direct product of Industrialization and a veryrecent development. In India, the foundation of modern industrywas laid between 1850 and 1870. Prior to that trade was confinedto individuals and families like craftsmen and artisans. They hadexpertise and specialized skills which was inherited by theiroffspring’s. After Industrial revolution, these people started losingtheir individual identities and had to join factories to earn their
 
livelihood and compete with mass production. There was apsychological dislocation as they were losing their identities.Indian trade union movement can be divided into three phases. The first phase falls between 1850 and 1900 during which theinception of trade unions took place. During this period of thegrowth of Indian Capitalist enterprises, the working and livingconditions of the labor were poor and their working hours werelong. Capitalists were only interested in their productivity andprofitability. In addition to long working hours, their wages werelow and general economic conditions were poor in industries. Inorder to regulate the working hours and other service conditionsof the Indian textile laborers, the Indian Factories Act was enactedin 1881. As a result, employment of child labor was prohibited.Mr. N M Lokhande organized people like Rickshawalas etc.,prepared a study report on their working conditions andsubmitted it to the Factory Labor Commission. The Indian FactoryAct of 1881 was amended in 1891 due to his efforts. Guided byeducated philanthropists and social workers like Mr. Lokhande,the growth of trade union movement was slow in this phase. Manystrikes took place in the two decades following 1880 in allindustrial cities. These strikes taught workers to understand thepower of united action even though there was no union in realterms. Small associations like Bombay Mill-Hands Associationcame up. The second phase of The Indian trade union movement fallsbetween 1900 and 1947. This phase was characterized by thedevelopment of organized trade unions and political movementsof the working class. It also witnessed the emergence of militanttrade unionism. The First World War (1914-191 and the Russianrevolution of 1917 gave a new turn to the Indian trade unionmovement and organized efforts on part of the workers to formtrade unions. In 1918, B P Wadia organized trade unionmovements with Textile mills in Madras. He served strike notice

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