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Poultry Health Midterms

Poultry Health Midterms

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Published by: humanupgrade on Dec 22, 2009
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POULTRY HEALTH & PRODUCTIONHatchery Operation
Because of the importance of hatchery isolation withmodern MG and MS disease-control programs, proper location of the hatchery is important.
The Hatchery should be situated at least 305 metersfrom houses containing chickens.
The hatchery area should be a separate unit with itsown entrance and exit, unassociated with those of  poultry farms.
The size of the hatchery is computed as follows:
Egg capacity of the setters and hatchers
 Number of eggs that can be set each week.
 Number of chicks that can be hatched from eachsetting.
 Number of chicks that can be hatched each week.
Employees delivering hatching eggs to the hatcherymust not enter the hatchery in the course of their duty.
Egg should be delivered to the door of the fumigatingcabinet.
Similarly, employees responsible for loading chicksinto the chick delivery vans must not enter the hatchery building.
Hatchery employees should deliver chick boxes tothe truck delivery door where they are taken by the truck driver and loaded into the truck.
 
Hatchery Ventilation is required to:1.Supply oxygen2.Remove carbon dioxide3.Remove heat from the incubators4.Provide incubators with air of propetexture.5.Remove heat produced in the hatcher andchick rooms.
Positive air pressure is created in aroom when the volume of air coming in is greater thanthat going out. With the reverse, a negative room pressureis created.
Regardless of the place where theair enters the hatchery, the air within the building shouldalways move towards the washroom, the mostcontaminated room in the hatchery. Thus each room intowhich the air moves should have a lower static pressure(air pressure) than the room from which it came. If not,the air will flow in the opposite direction.
Air from the hatcher room andchick-holding room should be exhausted through a water  bath to prevent chick down from these two rooms from being blown into the open air. This then is redrawn intothe intake of the ventilating system and recirculated to allrooms in the hatchery.
In the Egg Holding Room, use a75% relative humidity to prevent eggs from drying toorapidly during the pre incubation period.
In the Egg Holding Room, use a75% relative humidity to prevent eggs from drying toorapidly during the pre incubation period.
Setters and Hatchers will operatemore uniformly and economically if the relative humidityof this two rooms is maintained at 50%.
In the Washroom chicks areremoved from the hatching trays and boxed. Use anexhaust hood over this area to reduce cross-contamination.
In the Chick-Holding roommaintain a relative humidity of 65% to prevent excessivechick dehydration.
After the trays are washed they are placed in their buggies and moved to the adjacent CleanRoom to dry. The clean room should always have morestatic pressure than the washroom so air always flowsfrom the former to the latter. Sometimes this can be usedas fumigating room.
Sanitation plays an important part in the operation of ahatchery. It is a must.
Debris should be collected and either removed or incinerated.
Some key points in handling tremendous hatchery residues:1.Keep he material in a damp condition when floorsand incubators are being cleaned in order to keepas much of it out of the air as possible.2.Do not sweep debris, vacuum it.3.Do not track from the washroom being the mostcontaminated part of the hatchery.4.Use chick-down collectors over the exhaust from thechick hatchers and chick-holding room.5.There are two alternatives for waste removal, namely6.Use a commercial eggshell vacuum7.Place the waste in bags of plastic or similar materialand remove it from the hatchery.
 
8.Clean and sanitize the hatchery thoroughly. Whenin doubt, sanitize again.
Other Hatchery Rooms:
-Small office - Emergency generator room-Lounge and lunch room - Electrical control room-Small laboratory - Box storage room-Rest rooms - Electrical monitoring room-Tool room.
Hatchery Operation (Equipment)
Good equipment plays an important part in increasinghatchery profits. Not only will the hatchability of the eggsand chick quality be improved, but labor cost will belowered.
Choice of hatchery equipment are based on manyfactors, namely:1.Size of hatchery2.Number of hatches per wee3.Type of disease control program4.Whether breeder chicks or commercial pullet chicks are hatched.5.Type of incubato6.Hatchery services provided, such as beak,comb and toe trimming, vaccination and so on.
Water softeners and filters – an analysis of the water should be made. Excessive minerals will cause limedeposits on humidity controls, spray nozzles, and jets,making them inoperative. Proper filters and water softener may be needed.
Water Heaters – the demand for hot water in thehatchery is great. Industrial-type heaters with a largecapacity should be installed.
Egg-Handling Equipment
Hatchery Carts – wheeled carts, semi lift carts, handtrucks, pallets.
Conveyors – moving cases of eggs, boxed chicks andmaterials short distances may be expedited by usingconveyors rather than carrying them.
Egg Grading and Washing Equipment1.Vacuum egg lifts2.Graders for hatching eggs.3.Hatching Egg Washers
Emergency Electric Stanby Plants1.What type of Plant?2.Automatic or Manual?3.Electric Load Required4.Wiring the Standby Plant.
Incubating-Hatching Equipment1.Modern Chicken Egg Setter and Hatcher 
Other Hatchery Equipment2.Egg Candle3.Test thermometers4.Movable Chick Service turntables5.Chick Box Racks6.Chick counters7.Sexing equipment8.Vacuums9.Pressure Pumps10.Tray Washers11.Comb Trimming Shears12.Beak Trimming Equipment13.Toe Trimming equipment
Maintaining Hatching Egg Quality
Maintaining the hatching potential of a newly produced egg is of vital importance.
A lot can happen from the time the egg is laid to the time it enters the incubator.
Much of the inherent ability of the egg to hatch and produce a quality chick may be lost as a result of faulty egg handlingduring this critical period.
In the chicken HouseNesting Material:
Many eggs are broken in the nest as a result of inadequate cushioning of the nesting material.
More important is the prevention of stained and dirtyeggs as a result of unclean and wet nesting material.
 Nesting materials should be absorbent; durable;coarse, so they will not be blown easily from nests;dust-free; porous , so eggs will cool more quickly; of good cushioning quality; and inexpensive. Commonnesting materials are:-Extruded volcanic ash - dried sugar cane-Shavings - chopped corn cobs-Peat moss - straw, hay-Rice hulls - excelsior nest pads-Peanut hulls - oyster shell mixed-Carpet remnants with shavings-Shredded paper 
Training birds to use the nests
Have the lowest nest perch (27 in.) above the floor of the house.
Place the nest in the pen before the birds start to lay.
Put the nesting material in the nests when the nestsare placed in the pens. Keep the nesting materialclean before egg production. As hens may refuse thenest if it is dirty, dusty or soiled.

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