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Comments on parametric rolling in head seas

Comments on parametric rolling in head seas

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Published by J_Spain
Good paper on parametric rolling phenomena
Good paper on parametric rolling phenomena

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Published by: J_Spain on Dec 22, 2009
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07/06/2011

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On the limits of stability of ships rolling in head seas
M A S Neves
1
*
, C A Rodrı´guez
1
,
and
J E M Vivanco
21
LabOceano/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
2
COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
The manuscript was received on 15 January 2009 
{
and was accepted after revision for publication on 14 July 2009.
DOI: 10.1243/14750902JEME144
 Abstract:
Limits of stability are a well-known and practical way of looking into the problem of parametricresonance.Inthepresentpaperanin-depthanalysisofparametricrollingispresentedemploying the concept of limits of stability as a tool for improved understanding and assessmentof the complex dynamics embedded in the problem of non-linearly coupled parametric rolling inextreme regular seas. A third-order coupled mathematical model is considered. The coupledmodesofheave,roll,andpitcharecontemplated.Bymeansoftheanalysisofthelinearvariationalequation derived from the extended third-order model, the appearance of super-harmonics andincreased rigidity – proportional to wave amplitude squared due to third-order terms isdemonstrated. The mathematical model is then cast in the form of a Hill’s equation.Two important new aspects are addressed: the possible appearance of upper limits to theunstable area of the diagram; and the computation of numerical limits of stability. These new limits are compared with the analytical results. Subsequently, by computing the bifurcationdiagrams, the dependence of the limits of stability on the initial conditions is shown. Finally,the basins of attraction corresponding to two internal regions of the domain of unstablemotions are computed.
Keywords:
limits of stability, roll motion, parametric resonance, Hill equation, non-lineardynamics
1 INTRODUCTION
The phenomenon of parametric rolling of ships is a non-linear dynamical instabilization process thathas attracted much attention recently. Recent ex-amples can be found in references [
1
] and [
2
].In pure head or following seas, the transversesymmetry of the ship would imply that no wave-induced roll-exciting moment should be present.Nevertheless, for certain frequencies of wave en-counter, it is found that a small initial disturbance inroll can trigger an oscillatory rolling that can grow toappreciable amplitude after only a few cycles [
3
5
].For many years, more attention has been given toparametric rolling in astern seas [
6
8
]. Parametricrolling has usually been modelled as an uncoupledMathieu type equation [
9
11
]. Considering the well-known existence of the Mathieu resonant frequen-cies, focus has been concentrated on the first regionof instability, defined by the proximity of encounterfrequency to twice the roll natural frequency. Morerecently parametric excitation in head seas hasreceived wide attention owing to some recordedaccidents, particularly the one with an impressiveloss of cargo aboard the
APL China
in 1998 [
12
].It should be noted, however, that there are stillrelevant aspects to be understood, particularly withregard to the occurrence of unstable motions result-ing from non-linear coupling. Neves and Rodrı´guez[
13
,
14
] have investigated this topic with a third-order non-linear mathematical model that couplesheave, roll, and pitch motions based on a multi-variable Taylor expansion of the restoring actions.This new model has succeeded in reproducinstrong parametric resonance conditions in headseas. This has been demonstrated for a fishing vessel[
13
,
14
] and a container ship [
15
].
*
Corresponding author: Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, LabOceano/COPPE, Federal University of Riode Janeiro, CP 68.508, Rio de Janeiro, 21.945-970, Brazil.email: masn@peno.coppe.ufrj.br 
{
This manuscript was originally commissioned for the 2009 M3
Fluid–Structure Interactions
special issue.
517JEME144 Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part M: J. Engineering for the Maritime Environment
 
The present paper addresses some important non-linear dynamical features that have been identifiedbut not yet completely understood.In this context it isimportant to explore the influence of third-order non-linearities using the stability limits for the parametricrolling in head seas. Based on the third-order mathe-matical model for parametric rolling, two differentapproaches for computing the limits of stability areimplemented: an analytical approach and a couplednumerical approach. The hull of a transom sternfishing vessel is used in the computations.First, limits of stability are derived and discussedusing analytical approaches related to the linearvariationalequationofthenon-linearsetofequations.The resulting system is a Hill type equation. Second,numerical limits of stability are obtained. Taking intoconsiderationtheanalyticalresultspreviouslyderived,the numerical results are adequately understood.Subsequently, by computing the bifurcation dia-grams, the dependence of the limits of stability onthe initial conditions is shown. Finally, basins of attraction corresponding to two internal regions of the domain of unstable motions are computed.
2 MATHEMATICAL MODEL
Employing Taylor series expansions up to third order,Neves and Rodrı´guez [
13
,
14
] expressed restoring actions in the heave, roll, and pitch modes in coupled way. Wave actions are taken into considera-tion not only in the Froude–Krilov plus diffractionfirst-order forcing functions, but also in the second-and third-order terms resulting from volumetricchangesofthesubmergedhullduetoverticalmotionsand wave passage effects. The model corresponds toan extension, in both the order of non-linearities andthe levels of coupling, of the model introduced by Paulling (see references [
16
] and [
17
]).Non-linear restoring actions are expressed as
~
 Z 
 M 
26643775
~
 Z 
1
ð Þ
1
ð Þ
 M 
1
ð Þ
26643775
z
 Z 
2
m
ð Þ
z
 Z 
2
ð Þ
ð Þ
2
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
z
2
ð Þ
ð Þ
 M 
2
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
z
 M 
2
ð Þ
ð Þ
266664377775
z
 Z 
3
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
z
 Z 
3
ð Þ
ð Þ
3
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
z
3
ð Þ
ð Þ
 M 
3
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
z
 M 
3
ð Þ
ð Þ
266664377775
ð
1
Þ
 where superscripts (1), (2), and (3) refer to first-,second-, and third-order restoring terms, respec-tively and subscript
refers to restoring actions.First-order restoring actions correspond to the well-known hydrostatic actions
 Z 
1
ð Þ
~
 Z 
z
 Z 
h
h
~
r
 g 
 A
0
{
r
 g 
 A
0
 x 
 f 
0
h
1
ð Þ
~
w
w
~
r
 g 
+
GM 
w
 M 
1
ð Þ
~
 M 
z
 M 
h
h
~{
r
 g 
 A
0
 x 
 f 
0
z
r
 g 
+
GM 
L
h
ð
2
Þ
Second- and third-order actions are each com-posed of two terms. Subscripts (m) refer to non-linear hydrostatic forces and moments, whereas (w)refer to wave passage effects. Derivation of theseactions, based on multivariable Taylor series expan-sions, has been presented by Neves and Rodrı´guez[
13
,
14
]. According to the derivations, second-orderrestoring actions (motions) may be defined as
 Z 
2
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
~
12
zz 
2
z
2
 Z 
h
h
z
 Z 
ww
w
2
z
 Z 
hh
h
2
2
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
~
w
z
wh
h
 M 
2
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
~
12
zz 
2
z
2
 M 
h
h
z
 M 
ww
w
2
z
 M 
hh
h
2
ð
3
Þ
The coefficients are obtained as derivatives com-puted at the origin. For instance
 Z 
zz 
~
L
2
 Z 
2
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
L
2
~
0
;
w
~
L
2
2
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
L
L
w
~
w
~
0
 Analogously, second-order restoring actions (wavepassage) corresponding to non-linear pressure ef-fects due to the incident wave field acting on thedisplaced hull are defined as
 Z 
2
ð Þ
ð Þ
~
 Z 
f
ð Þ
z
 Z 
fh
ð Þ
h
2
ð Þ
 w 
ð Þ
~
fw
ð Þ
w
 M 
2
ð Þ
ð Þ
~
 M 
f
ð Þ
z
 M 
fh
ð Þ
h
ð
4
Þ
 where subscript
f
refers to wave elevation, defined as
f
,
 y 
,
;
x
ð Þ
~
 A
 w 
cos
kx 
cos
x
ð Þ
z
ky 
sin
x
ð Þ
{
v
e
½ ð
5
Þ
518 M A S Neves, C A Rodrı´guez, and J E M VivancoProc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part M: J. Engineering for the Maritime Environment JEME144
 
Third-order restoring actions (motions) are
 Z 
3
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
~
16
zzz 
3
z
3
 Z 
zz 
h
2
h
z
3
 Z 
hh
h
2
z
 Z 
hhh
h
3
z
3
 Z 
QQ
w
2
z
3
 Z 
QQh
hw
2
3
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
~
16
QQQ
w
3
z
3
zz 
Q
2
w
z
3
hhQ
h
2
w
z
6
Qh
wh
 M 
3
ð Þ
m
ð Þ
~
16
zzz 
3
z
3
 M 
zz 
h
2
h
z
3
 M 
hh
h
2
z
 M 
hhh
h
3
z
3
 M 
QQ
w
2
z
3
 M 
QQh
hw
2
ð
6
Þ
Finally, third-order restoring actions (wave passage)are expressed as
 Z 
3
ð Þ
ð Þ
~
 Z 
ff
ð Þ
z
 Z 
f
zz 
ð Þ
2
z
 Z 
ffh
ð Þ
h
z
 Z 
f
h
ð Þ
h
z
 Z 
wwf
ð Þ
w
2
z
 Z 
hhf
ð Þ
h
2
3
ð Þ
ð Þ
~
ffw
ð Þ
w
z
f
w
ð Þ
w
z
f
h
ð Þ
wh
 M 
3
ð Þ
ð Þ
~
 M 
ff
ð Þ
z
 M 
f
zz 
ð Þ
2
z
 M 
ffh
ð Þ
h
z
 M 
f
h
ð Þ
h
z
 M 
wwf
ð Þ
w
2
z
 M 
hhf
ð Þ
h
2
ð
7
Þ
The coupled equations of motion are taken here inthe explicit form described in detail in references[
13
] and [
14
]. Taking into account equations (1) to(3) and (5) to (7), the non-linear heave, roll, andpitch equations are established as
m
z
 Z 
ð Þ
z
 Z 
_
_
z
 Z 
hh
hh
z
 Z 
_
hh
_
hh
z
 Z 
z
 Z 
h
h
z
12
 Z 
zz 
2
z
12
 Z 
ww
w
2
z
12
 Z 
hh
h
2
z
 Z 
h
h
z
16
 Z 
zzz 
3
z
12
 Z 
zz 
h
2
h
z
12
 Z 
ww
w
2
z
12
 Z 
wwh
w
2
h
z
12
 Z 
hh
h
2
z
16
 Z 
hhh
h
3
z
 Z 
f
ð Þ
z
 Z 
fh
ð Þ
h
z
 Z 
ff
ð Þ
z
 Z 
f
zz 
ð Þ
2
z
 Z 
f
h
ð Þ
h
z
 Z 
wwf
ð Þ
w
2
z
 Z 
hhf
ð Þ
h
2
~
 Z 
 w 
ð Þð
8
Þ
 J 
 xx 
z
ww
ww
z
_
ww
_
ww
z
_
ww
_
ww
j j
_
ww
_
ww
z
w
w
z
w
w
z
wh
wh
z
12
zz 
w
2
w
z
16
www
w
3
z
12
hhw
h
2
w
z
wh
wh
z
fw
ð Þ
w
z
ffw
ð Þ
w
z
f
w
ð Þ
w
z
fwh
ð Þ
wh
~
0
ð
9
Þ
 J 
 yy 
z
 M 
hh
À Á
hh
z
 M 
_
hh
_
hh
z
 M 
z
 M 
_
_
z
 M 
z
 M 
h
h
z
12
 M 
zz 
2
z
12
 M 
ww
w
2
z
12
 M 
hh
h
2
z
 M 
h
h
z
16
 M 
zzz 
3
z
12
 M 
zz 
h
2
h
z
12
 M 
ww
w
2
z
12
 M 
wwh
w
2
h
z
12
 M 
hh
h
2
z
16
 M 
hhh
h
3
z
 M 
f
ð Þ
z
 M 
fh
ð Þ
h
z
 M 
ff
ð Þ
z
 M 
f
zz 
ð Þ
2
z
 M 
ffh
ð Þ
h
z
 M 
f
h
ð Þ
h
z
 M 
wwf
ð Þ
w
2
z
 M 
hhf
ð Þ
h
2
~
 M 
 w 
ð Þð
10
Þ
On the left-hand side of equations (8) to (10),added masses and wave damping terms are assumedto be linear. A quadratic roll damping is consideredin equation (9). On the right-hand sides of equations(8) to (10), [
 Z 
 w 
(
)
 w 
(
)
 w 
(
)]
represent linear waveexcitations. Owing to the particular wave incidenceconsidered,
 w 
5
0 has been assumed in equation(9). Once all of the coefficients in equations (8) to(10) are known, the set of three equations may beintegrated numerically without much difficulty.
3 ANALYTICAL LIMITS OF STABILITY 
The final objective here is to obtain numerical limitsof stability. As the non-linear system is a coupledand complicated one, it may be cumbersome tointerpret some of the dynamical characteristics thatcome out from the numerical analysis. In thiscontext, it is important to achieve, as much aspossible, a deep understanding of the dynamicsbehind the non-linear coupling. For this purpose,before discussing the numerical results, let usconsider a simplified form of equation (9), corres-ponding to its complete linear variational equation[
18
], which represents the restoring actions obtainedin terms of a Taylor series expansion of the heave,roll, and pitch perturbations in the vicinity of thesteady linear responses
ST
(
)
ST
ð Þ
~
 A
 w 
g
3
cos
v
e
z
a
ð Þ
g
4
cos
v
e
z
a
w
À Á
g
5
cos
v
e
z
a
h
ð Þ
264375
The following linear version of equation (9) istherefore obtained [
19
]
  
On the limits of stability of ships rolling in head seas 519JEME144 Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part M: J. Engineering for the Maritime Environment

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