Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Pathology Notes Chapter 1

Pathology Notes Chapter 1

Ratings: (0)|Views: 20 |Likes:
Published by peterneil

More info:

Published by: peterneil on Dec 23, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





PATHOLOGY AT FIRST GLANCEI.Pathology is the study of diseaseII.Pathological conditions endanger homeostasisIII.Recognized by patients symptomsIV.Signs as evidence for disease found by physical exam or diagnostic testsA.Can be asymptomatic
Pathogenesis is development of disease in stagesVI.Diseases can chronic(long term) or acute(quick onset)I.MECHANISMS OF DISEASEA.Any break in homeostasis can cause degenerative changes at a cellular levelB.Can cause signs of disease
Elements involved can be direct or indirect and include
Predisposing factors, access to preventive health care, genetic diseases,infection, inflammation and repair, neoplasms, physical trauma, chemical agents,malnutrition, immune disorders, aging, psychological factors, and mentaldisorders
Predisposing FactorsA.Also called risk factorsB.Include age, gender, lifestyle, environment, and heredityIV.IV Preventive Health Care
Positive personal health behavior plus preventative medical services mayreduce mortality rate connected to certain diseases such ascardiovascular diseaseII.People can change behavior if risk factors are known and screening testsare doneIII.Safety measures can prevent many injuriesIV.Early intervention in family violenceV Genetic Diseases
23 pairs of chromosomes
1.22 pair = autosomes1 pair = sex chromosome = X and YB.Mutations = change in genetic codeC.Some genetic diseases are: Huntington’s, Down syndrome, Dwarfism, Albinism,Cystic Fibrosis, etcVI. InfectionA.Caused by pathogensB.Signs of local infection include: redness, swelling, heat, pain, fever, enlargedlymph glands, pus, and red streaksC.Disease-causing organisms can1.invade and destroy local tissue
produce toxins end result is tissue damage that can affect the entireorganism3.Sources of infection can be
Indogenous - start inside the bodyb.exogenous -start outside the bodyD. Modes of transmission can be direct or indirect1..Pathogenic agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa
Can be communicable or contagious and transmitted from one person to another 3.Carriers are asymptomatic4.Body’s defenses include:a.natural and chemical barriers such as skin, tears cilia, pH, body’s flora,inflammatory response, and immune response
When these defenses fail medical intervention is necessary)a.Sometimes patients must be isolated to stop spread of disease andsometimes immunizations must be given to populationVII. Inflammation andRepair 
Acute inflammation is accompanied by redness, heat, swelling, pain, and los of function
Widespread inflammation is marked by systemic features such as fever, malaise,and loss of appetiteVIII. Cancer A.Is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell divisionB.Benign (not Cancer)1.Tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread or metastasize
Malignant cells( cancerous) grow and invade neighboring tissues andmetastasizes.IX. Physical Trauma and Chemical Agents3.Physical trauma is major cause of death in children and young4.Falls, motor vehicle accidents, drowning, and burns to name a few5.Chemical agents can include pollutants, poisons,
drugs, preservatives, radiation, electrical shock, and insect bitesX. MalnutritionA.Kwashiorkor – a severe deficiency in proteinsXI. Immune disorders
B.Can cause allergy, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency syndrome
llergen an antigenic substanceD.Antigen - causes an immune responseE.Anaphylaxis -systemic reactionF.Autoimmune diseases -body attacks itself 
Rheumatoid arthritisH.AIDS- HIVXII. AgingA.High blood pressure, cholesterol, and sugar 1.Diet and exercise important2.Drug therapyXII. Psychological FactorsA.Can weaken immune systemXIV. PainA.What is pain, how do we interpret it, what type of pair, why do people havedifferent tolerance for pain are questions we need to understand in order to treatpeople better 

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->