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Drug Studies

Drug Studies

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Published by Cyrus

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Published by: Cyrus on Dec 23, 2009
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08/04/2013

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DRUG STUDIES!
Brand Name:
TRAMADOL
CLASSIFICATIONS
Therapeutic:
Analgesics (centrally acting)
ACTIONS
 Physiologic Mechanism
• Decreased pain.
 Pharmacologic Mechanism
• Binds to mu-opioid receptors.• Inhibits reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in the CNS.
INDICATION
• Moderate to moderately severe pain
NURSING CONSIDERATIONS
• Assess type, location, and intensity of pain before and 2-3 hr (peak) after administration.• Assess BP & RR before and periodically during administration. Respiratory depressionhas not occurred with recommended doses.• Assess bowel function routinely. Prevention of constipation should be instituted withincreased intake of fluids and bulk and with laxatives to minimize constipating effects.• Assess previous analgesic history. Tramadol is not recommended for patients dependenton opioids or who have previously received opioids for more than 1 wk; may causeopioid withdrawal symptoms.• Prolonged use may lead to physical and psychological dependence and tolerance,although these may be milder than with opioids. This should not prevent patient fromreceiving adequate analgesia. Most patients who receivetramadol for pain d not develop psychological dependence. If tolerance develops, changing to an opioid agonist may berequired to relieve pain.• Tramadol is considered to provide more analgesia than codeine 60 mg but less thancombined aspirin 650mg/codeine 60 mg for acute postoperative pain.
 
• Monitor patient for seizures. May occur within recommended dose range. Risk increased with higher doses and inpatients taking antidepressants (SSRIs, tricyclics, or Mao inhibitors), opioid analgesics, or other durgs that decrese the seizure threshold.• Overdose may cause respiratory depression and seizures. Naloxone (Narcan) mayreverse some, but not all, of the symptoms of overdose. Treatment should besymptomatic and supportive. Maintain adequate respiratory exchange.• Encourage patient to cough and breathe deeply every 2 hr to prevent atelactasis and pneumonia.
GENERIC NAME:
Ranitidine
BRAND NAME:
Zantac
CLASSIFICATION
Therapeutic:
Anti-ulcer agents
 Pharmacologic:
Histamine H2 antagonists
DOSAGE
20 mgIV q8h
MECHANISM OF ACTION
• Inhibits the action of histamine at the H2 receptor site located primarily in gastric parietal cells, resulting in inhibition of gastric acid secretion.• In addition, ranitidine bismuth citrate has some antibacterial action against H. pylori.
INDICATION
•Treatment and prevention of heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach.
CONTRA INDICATIONS
Contraindicated in:•Hypersensitivity, Cross-sensitivity may occur; some oral liquids contain alcohol andshould be avoided in patients with known intolerance.Use Cautiously in:

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