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Thermal Expansion in Solids and Liquids

Thermal Expansion in Solids and Liquids

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LEP3.1.01Thermal expansion in solids and liquids
PHYWE series of publications Lab. Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH 37070 Göttingen, Germany23101
1
Related concepts
Linear expansion, volume expansion of liquids, thermal capa-city, lattice potential, equilibrium spacing, Grüneisen equation.
Principle and task
The volume expansion of liquids and the linear expansion ofvarious materials is determined as a function of temperature.
Equipment
Dilatometer with clock gauge04233.001Copper tube for 04231.0104231.051 Aluminium tube for 04231.0104231.061Tube, quartz for 04231.0104231.071Immersion thermostat A10046994.931Cooling coil f.A10046994.011 Accessory set for A10046994.021Bath for thermostat, Makrolon08487.021Lab thermometer, -10+100C38056.001Rubber tubing, i.d. 6 mm39282.002Syringe 1ml, Luer, 10 pcs02593.031Cannula 0.6
60 mm, Luer, 20 pcs02599.041Measuring tube, l 300 mm, NS19/2603024.002Wash bottle, plastic, 250 ml33930.001Flask, flat bottom, 50 ml, IGJ19/2635810.012Glass beaker, tall,100 ml36002.001Ethyl acetate250 ml30075.251Glycerol250 ml30084.251Olive oil, pure100 ml30177.101Laboratory balance w. RS 232, 310 g45025.931
Problems
1.To determine the volume expansion of ethyl acetate(C
4
H
8
O
2)
, methylated spirit, olive oil, glycerol and water asa function of temperature, using the pycnometer.2.To determine the linear expansion of brass, iron, copper,aluminium, duran glass and quartz glass as a function oftemperature using a dilatometer.3.To investigate the relationship between change in lengthand overall length in the case of aluminium.
Set-up and procedure
1. The volume of the pycnometer is determined and the scalecalibrated by weighing it empty and then filled with destilledwater.The pycnometer, filled with the liquid to be measured, isbrought to temperature in the water bath (thermostat). Thechange in volume is read from the scale on the tube built intoits stopper.
R
Fig. 1: Experimental set-up for measuring thermal expansion.
 
LEP3.1.01Thermal expansion in solids and liquids
23101PHYWE series of publications Lab. Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH 37070 Göttingen, Germany
22. The connecting tube to the thermostat is removed and thedilatometer is connected to the water circuit instead. Keep thefeed and discharge lines as far away from the dilatometer aspossible so that its body will not heat up.Clamp on the measuring tube, set the scale on the dial gaugeto “0” and measure the expansion as a function of the tempe-rature.There is so little expansion in the case of duran glass andquartz glass that the heating and expansion of the dilatometerbody as a result of radiation and conduction falsifies themeasurement considerably. In this case, therefore, the meas-urement is started at the highest temperature (80°C) and thehot water in the bath replaced with cold tap water. As the temperature changes very quickly with this method, thetemperature of the dilatometer body remains constant. Onlytwo values are measured.3. In the case of aluminium, expansion is measured at threedifferent rod lenghts. The rod can be clamped in various pla-ces for this.
Theory and evaluation
 An increase in temperature
causes the vibrational amplitudeof the atoms in the crystal lattice of the solid to increase. Thepotential curve (Fig. 2) of the bonding forces corresponds onlyto a first approximation to the parabola of a harmonic oscilla-tion (dotted line); generally it is flatter in the case of large inter-atomic distances than in the case of small ones. If the vibra-tional amplitude is large, the centre of oscillation thus movesto larger interatomic distances. The average spacing betweenthe atoms increases, as well as the total volume
(at constantpressure
 p
 ).
=1
·
 )
 p
(1)is called the volume expansion coefficient; if we consider onedimension only, we obtain the coefficient of linear expansion
1
=1
·
 l
 )
 p
(2)where
 l
is the total length of the body.1. A rise in the temperature causes a greater thermal agitationof the molecules in a liquid and therefore an increase in itsvolume (water between 0 and 4°C is an exception to this,however).The coefficient of expansion of olive oil and water depends ontemperature. Measured values at 20°C are:
 /10
–3
K
–1
Water0.20Glycerol0.50Olive oil0.72Methylated spirit1.11Ethyl acetate1.372. Fig 4 shows that the length increases approximately linear-ly with the temperature in the temperature range observed.Since the changes in length
 l
=
 l
 l
o
are small compared with the original lenght
 l
o
, we can say
1
=
 l·
1(3)and thus
 l
=
 l
o
[1 +
1
o
 )](4)were
o
is the initial temperature.

 l
o
 l
R
Fig. 2: Potential curve as a function of the interatomicspacing
 r 
.
 
Fig. 3: Relationship between volume
and temperature
of:a) ethyl acetate, b) methylated spirit, c) olive oil, d) gly-cerol and e) water.

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