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MB0034 Research Logy Set 1 and Set 2

MB0034 Research Logy Set 1 and Set 2

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Published by: niteshg11 on Dec 24, 2009
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Q1. Explain the different types of research.Ans:Types of Research
Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudelyaccording to its major intent or the methods. According to the intent, research may be classifiedas:
1. Pure Research
It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, e.g.,Einstein’s theory of relativity, Newton’s contributions, Galileo’s contribution, etc. It is alsoknown as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It maylead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the criticalfactors in a practical problem. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us tochoose the best solution.
2 .Applied Research
It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It isthus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g.,marketing research carried on for developing a news market or for studying the post-purchaseexperience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to findsolutions to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoreticalknowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o conceptual clarity. Itcan put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual clarification. It may integrate previouslyexisting theories.
3 .Exploratory Research
It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem aboutwhich the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research
may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or tomake a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or todetermine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations;at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.”
4 . Descriptive Study
It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. Itis more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the rangeof elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of a youngscience and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. It can highlightimportant methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtainedmay be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research.They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program.
5 .Diagnostic Study
It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discoveringwhat is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying thecauses of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discoveringand testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population,adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables,statistical analysis and test of significance.
6. Evaluation Studies
It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on thedevelopment of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantityof an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions required for itssuccess. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It isconcerned also with change over time.
7. Action Research
It is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programmelaunched for solving a problem for improving an existing situation. It includes six major steps:diagnosis, sharing of diagnostic information, planning, developing change programme, initiationof organizational change, implementation of participation and communication process, and postexperimental evaluation.
Q2. Discuss the criteria of good research problem.Ans:
Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research:
1. Verifiable evidence:
That is factual observations which other observers can see and check.
2. Accuracy:
That is describing what really exists. It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwarranted conclusions either byexaggeration or fantasizing.
3. Precision:
That is making it as exact as necessary, or giving exact number or measurement.This avoids colourful literature and vague meanings.
4. Systematization:
That is attempting to find all the relevant data, or collecting data in asystematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. Data based on casualrecollections are generally incomplete and give unreliable judgments and conclusions.
5. Objectivity:
That is free being from all biases and vested interests. It means observation isunaffected by the observer’s values, beliefs and preferences to the extent possible and he is ableto see and accept facts as they are, not as he might wish them to be.
6. Recording
: That is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. Since humanmemory is fallible, all data collected are recorded.
7. Controlling conditions
: That is controlling all variables except one and then attempting toexamine what happens when that variable is varied. This is the basic technique in all scientificexperimentation – allowing one variable to vary while holding all other variables constant.
8. Training investigators
: That is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make themunderstand what to look for, how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection.
Q3. Describe the procedure used to test the hypothesis?Ans:
To test a hypothesis means to tell (on the basis of the data researcher has collected) whether or not the hypothesis seems to be valid. In hypothesis testing the main question is: whether the nullhypothesis or not to accept the null hypothesis? Procedure for hypothesis testing refers to allthose steps that we undertake for making a choice between the two actions i.e., rejection andacceptance of a null hypothesis. The various steps involved in hypothesis testing are stated below: 
1 Making a Formal Statement
The step consists in making a formal statement of the null hypothesis (Ho) and also of thealternative hypothesis (Ha). This means that hypothesis should clearly state, considering thenature of the research problem. For instance, Mr. Mohan of the Civil Engineering Departmentwants to test the load bearing capacity of an old bridge which must be more than 10 tons, in thatcase he can state his hypothesis as under:
Null hypothesis HO: µ =10 tons

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