1. Verifiable evidence:
That is factual observations which other observers can see and check.
That is describing what really exists. It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwarranted conclusions either byexaggeration or fantasizing.
That is making it as exact as necessary, or giving exact number or measurement.This avoids colourful literature and vague meanings.
That is attempting to find all the relevant data, or collecting data in asystematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. Data based on casualrecollections are generally incomplete and give unreliable judgments and conclusions.
That is free being from all biases and vested interests. It means observation isunaffected by the observer’s values, beliefs and preferences to the extent possible and he is ableto see and accept facts as they are, not as he might wish them to be.
: That is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. Since humanmemory is fallible, all data collected are recorded.
7. Controlling conditions
: That is controlling all variables except one and then attempting toexamine what happens when that variable is varied. This is the basic technique in all scientificexperimentation – allowing one variable to vary while holding all other variables constant.
8. Training investigators
: That is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make themunderstand what to look for, how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection.
Q3. Describe the procedure used to test the hypothesis?Ans:
To test a hypothesis means to tell (on the basis of the data researcher has collected) whether or not the hypothesis seems to be valid. In hypothesis testing the main question is: whether the nullhypothesis or not to accept the null hypothesis? Procedure for hypothesis testing refers to allthose steps that we undertake for making a choice between the two actions i.e., rejection andacceptance of a null hypothesis. The various steps involved in hypothesis testing are stated below:
1 Making a Formal Statement
The step consists in making a formal statement of the null hypothesis (Ho) and also of thealternative hypothesis (Ha). This means that hypothesis should clearly state, considering thenature of the research problem. For instance, Mr. Mohan of the Civil Engineering Departmentwants to test the load bearing capacity of an old bridge which must be more than 10 tons, in thatcase he can state his hypothesis as under:
Null hypothesis HO: µ =10 tons