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G. L. Kavtaradze. Two Transcaucasian Ethnonyms of Anatolian Origin

G. L. Kavtaradze. Two Transcaucasian Ethnonyms of Anatolian Origin



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About the Anatolian origin of some Caucasian etnonyms.
About the Anatolian origin of some Caucasian etnonyms.

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Giorgi Leon Kavtaraże on Apr 06, 2008
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Georgian Academy of SciencesI. Javakhishvili Institute of History and EthnologyTbilisi:
[p. 39]
Giorgi Leon Kavtaradze
There are undoubtable data of the neighbourhood of the Armenians and theGeorgians at least for the second century B.C. By the information of Strabo's "Geography", in consequence of the activities of two Armenianmilitary leaders, Zariadris (Zareh) and Artaxias (Artashes) (father and sonwho subsequently became the kings of Sophene and Great Armenia), theArmenians took from the Iberians
"the land along the side of Mount  Paryadres and Cholarzene and Gogarene" (11,14, 5).
In this case
"the land along the side of Mount Paryadres" 
must be the territories south and south-east of the upper and middle flow of the Chorokhi (Choruh) where Parkhal-dag or the historical Georgian province Tao (Armenian Taik) is also located;Gogarene was situated on the upper streams of the right tributaries of theupper and middle flow of the Kura; Chorzene was located between theMount of Paryadres and Gogarene or in the area of the Arsiani (Turkish
mountains and Kola (Gol)-Artaani (Ardahan).This means thatthe Armenians conquered the Taoian territory for the first time in the earlysecond century B.C.
It would have been impossible to conquer Tao before, because only at that time the territories south and south-west of it,Carenitida and Xerxene, located closer to the core area of the contemporaryArmenianans, were taken by them from the Chalybes and the Mosynoiceans(Strabo
The Chalybes and the Mosynoiceans lived mainly on thesouthern
The fact that the territories inhabited by the Georgian population were included inArmenia becomes obvious by the information that the Iberian cavalry had beenreckoned as the most formidable part of the armies with which Tigranes II establishedhis oriental empire (cf. 40, 315).
[p. 40]
shores of the Black Sea; therefore it is clear that Strabo mentions in that casethe southern parts of both these peoples who lived in the mountains.
By the data of Xenophon's
land of Chalybes
and Armeniaare evidently quite in contrast with each other 
(IV, IV, 18);
as to an elder of one of West Armenian villages the neighbouring country, next to the route oGreeks, belonged to the Chalybes
(IV, IV, 34).
We must also take intoaccount the information of another work of Xenophons -
Asto it, the
lived in the mountains, in the neighbourhood of the WesternArmenians, and the latter apparently took away from them the fertile lands(
By the information of Strabo, the
are the same as the
Chalybes (XI, III, 19).
Strabo also informs us that Carenitida, the region of the upper flow of the Kara-su (Northern Euphrates), had been conquered bythe Armenians from the Chalybes
(XI, XIV, 5).
This event is dated to the firsthalf of the 2nd century B.C. - i.e., later than Xenophon's expedition.Therefore it is possible to propose that the Chalds, mentioned in the
were the southern part of the Chalybes of the
andthat their territory was occupied by the Armenians before Xenophon's times.It seems possible to consider the Chalybes mentioned in the
asthe population of Carenitida, the northern part of the same East AnatolianChalybean-Chaldian area which, as it was already stated, was later conquered by the Armenians, in the first half of the 2nd century B.C. At thesame time, quite a clear and strong Colchian substratum of the Armenianlanguage indicates linguistical connections in the much earlier period (See33; 18, 342-379; 1; 2, 45-61; 20, 103). Perhaps the above mentioned Chalds,inhabitants of the southern part of the Chalybean- Chaldean area, wereresponsible for such Armenian-Colchian linguistical parallels.
The Armenian - southern Colchian contacts of the Early Medieval period aredepicted in the Armenian chronicles. The Armenian
[p. 41]
 king Pap (by the words of the Armenian historian of the 5th century,P'awstos Biwzand) informs about the representative of the Mamikoneanfamily, Musegh, that
"his ancestors abandoned their kingdom in the realmof the Tzenk and came to our ancestors" (V, iv).
In his letter to the kingVarazdat, cited by the same historian, Musegh's brother Manuel informs that
"our ancestors were the kings in the realm of the Tzenk. And on account of quarrels /between/ *brothers and because much blood flowed, we set out to seek a haven and settled /here/. The first Arsakuni kings knew who we wereand whence /we came/..." (V, xxxvii).
Moses Xorenac'i interpreted the
as China
(II, lxxxi),
but already P'awstos Biwzand wrote that the realm of Mamikoneans was
the realm of Taik (IV, ii), the strongholds of Taik (III,
and that the
district of Tayk 
was their 
own district (IV, xviii).
By theinformation of P'awstos', the
impregnable castle
of Mamikoneans
wascalled Eraxani (IV, xviii).
Eraxani was located in the vicinity of the modemtown Erkinis on the east bank of the Choruh north of its junction with theOltu cayi (10, 462). As to the Georgian tradition the territory north of the junction of the Chorokhi and the Oltisis tskali is known under the name of 
In the
"Geography of Armenia" 
by an anonymous author of the 7thcentury A.D. this territory was mentioned under the name
Tzakatk (V, 22, xiii).
Both these terms,
seem to be connected with theetnonyme
In accordance with the
"Geography of Armenia" 
andMoses Xorenac'i,
appears to be the same as
(II,76). Chaldea
is an old name of the land of the Lazians. By the aboveStrabo's statement, the Chalybes were known at his times under the name of 
Chaldeans (XI, III, 19)
and Carenitida - the land located immediately southof Tao - was taken by the Armenians from Chalybes
(11 ,14, 5).
By the"Geography of Armenia", Tzaniw, which is Xaltik, together with Marniwliw,Egrewikiw
[p. 42]
and Xaziw belongs to the Eger, which is Colchis
(V, 19),
though Tayk is bordering Eger 
(V, 22).
Tao/Taik was extending southwards as far as thesource of the Euphrates. On the right bank of the upper flow of the Dumlu-su (which flows to the south from the Dumlu Dağ),
the source stream of the Kara-su (the Northern Euphrates), is located the well-known medieval place
Gurci Boğaz -
the Georgian Pass. The territories in the north of it wereconsidered by the Turks as Georgian (and after the sixteenth century asformer Georgian) lands. But the connection
of the Georgian tradition withthe Anatolian world was much more far-reaching.
According to the Georgian tradition, the main protector of Georgians, St.George and St. Nino, the Illuminatrix of Iberia
(Eastern Georgia), wereof Cappadocian origin. As to the information of Georgian chronicles, thename of the father 
of Haos
of the mythical eponymousancestors of Armenians and Georgians, was
This information isobviously in connection with the data of the Armenian and Greek writers asto whom
is the ancestor of the Armenians (Agathangelos, 76; Chor.,
, 5,
9, 10, 12;
Chronik, 12;
Chronographia, 49c)
(See 22, 88-94; 42, 74n.3).
One of the main river of Tao, the Tortomis-tskali (Tortum Deresi), takes its coursefrom the same mountain, but northwards.
The Greek name for Georgians,
 Ibhroi, is
connected with the above-mentionedArmenian ethnonym -
If we correlate Strabo's information about the trade routeto India through the Colchis and Iberia
(XI, V, 8)
with that of Herodotus (
whoknows the route from Phasis through Colchis, Saspeires and Media to Persia andIndian Ocean, the identification of the Saspeires with the Iberians would become quite

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