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Shamanism and Metashamanism by Elias Capriles

Shamanism and Metashamanism by Elias Capriles

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Published by clararrosamar
Shamanism believes nonordinary reality to be true and ordinary reality to be illusion, affirming dependence with regard to the former. Metashammanism liberates the practitioner from the power of both realities, showing both to be illusory.
Shamanism believes nonordinary reality to be true and ordinary reality to be illusion, affirming dependence with regard to the former. Metashammanism liberates the practitioner from the power of both realities, showing both to be illusory.

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Published by: clararrosamar on Dec 26, 2009
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05/23/2012

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SSCCIIEENNCCEE,,SSHHAAMMAANNIISSMMAANNDDMMEETTAASSHHAAMMAANNIISSMM
 
Paper Read at theSecond Venezuelan Seminar on Ethnomedicine and Religion(Mérida, Venezuela, March 26-30, 1990)Elías Capriles1.- «Scientific» and Shamanistic Vision
We shall begin by reviewing two main approaches to life, health, illness andhealing: the «primitive», shamanistic one prevailing in tribal communities, and the«modern», scientific one prevailing in industrial societies and their followers.The «scientific» approach characteristic of industrial societies and their followersregards the environment as a cumulus of objects lacking subjectivity to be manipulated, andstudies the generation of «physiological disease» overlooking the state of the «patient»snetwork of significant relationships and the effects that the problems arising in that netcould have on the development of «illness».In general, the «scientific» approach only considers the patient’s significantrelationships in the case of imbalances deemed to be «psychological», and only recently—as a result of research such as the one carried out by Bateson, Haley, Weakland andJohnson on the genesis of «schizophrenia» or as the one carried out by Winnicott on thegenesis of autism, of the development of the understanding of family dynamics
1
, and of thedevelopment of Antipsychiatry
2
— has managed to understand part of the social dynamicsat the root of such «imbalances».Whereas the «scientific» approach causes human subjects to relate instrumentally totheir environment, the shamanistic approach, which regards the latter as a cumulus of subjective phenomena (or even as a living whole) leads human subjects to relate to itcommunicatively. In other works I have attempted to show that, in so far as we arepossessed by instrumental relations, there is no way for us to confine them to the field of our relationships to the environment and thus we necessarily treat other people as things,and also that, given our technical might, instrumental dealings with the natural environmentnecessarily result in the destruction of the physical basis of our existence, giving rise to theecological crisis that threatens us with destruction. Therefore, we must not accept
1
Please consult the Bibliography at the end of this article.
2
Although the term «Antipsychiatry» was coined by David Cooper (see the Bibliography), Ronald Laing isalso considered as an antipsychiatrist, and the same may be said of Aaron Esterson, Lee, Philipson, Berke,Szchazman and other members of Laing’s original group. The precedents of Antipsychiatry are to be found inthe Jungian interpretation of neurosis as a potentially healing process, in Kazimierz Dabrowski’s book
Positive Disintegration
and in the research by Gregory Bateson (in particular, in various of the works in thebook
Steps to an Ecology of Mind 
and in the book
Perceval’s Narrative).
According to Antipsychiatry,psychosis may be a spontaneous self-healing process that, unless institutionally aborted, may put an end toalienated, pathological normality (that is, of the pathological result of adaptation to a sick society).
 
Habermas’ thesis that the relations between human beings should be communicative andthat the relations between human beings and their environment should be instrumental
3
.Now, what we are concerned with here is that the shamanistic approach searches forthe root of imbalances or illness in a pathology of the intersubjective relationships of the«diseased» person. Among the sharanahua, the cashinahua and the members of other SouthAmerican tribes, the shaman consumes a psychedelic substance in order to discover andtreat the communicative pathology that supposedly produced the imbalance
4
. As noted byMarlene Dobkin de Ríos
5
:
«The use of 
ayahuasca
for healing does not require the conceptualization of the hallucinogenic as ahealing agent
 per se.
Rather, the vine is regarded as a substance that activates a powerful means for achievingan intended result: it gives the healer access to the culturally important zone of the causality of illness,allowing him or her to identify the nature of the illness... in order to later on neutralize or drive away themagic ill that is regarded as the cause of the disease. In regard to the successes attributed to the healer, we findthat in general terms there has been a process of selection whereby the healers only accept the patients whomthey believe they may successfully treat... Only the patients suffering given kinds of illness take
ayahuasca—
normally those suffering ills often classified as psychosomatic.»
We should not think that shamans only treat
maladies imaginaires.
Recent researchhas dug out the psychological roots of many illness that until very recently were regardedby the prevailing «medical science» as physiological diseases having no connection to thepsyche—and in particular of illness still deemed «incurable» or difficult to cure, such ascancer
6
.
3
See Elías Capriles,
 Las aventuras del fabuloso hombre-máquina. Contra Habermas y la ratio technica.
 
4
See Michael J. Harner,
 Alucinógenos y chamanismo.
 
5
Marlene Dobkin de Ríos (Spanish, 1976),
Curas con ayahuasca en un barrio bajo urbano.
In Michael J.Harner,
opere citato.
 
6
As noted by Fritjof Capra in his book
The Turning Point:
 «The Simontons fully recognize the role or carcinogenic substances and environmental influences inthe formation of cancer cells, and they strongly advocate the implementation of appropriate social policies toeliminate these health hazards. However, they have also come to realize that neither carcinogenic substances,nor radiation, nor genetic predisposition alone will provide an adequate explanation of what causes cancer. Nounderstanding of cancer will be complete without addressing the crucial question: What inhibits a person’simmune system, at a particular time, from recognizing and destroying abnormal cells and thus allows them togrow into a life-threatening tumor? This is the question on which the Simontons have concentrated in theirresearch and therapeutic practice, and they have found that it can be answered only by carefully consideringthe mental end emotional aspects of health and illness.«The emerging picture of cancer is consistent with the general model of illness we have beendeveloping. A state of imbalance is generated by prolonged stress which is channeled through a particularpersonality configuration to give rise to specific disorders. In cancer the crucial stresses appear to be thosethat threaten some role or relationship that is central to the person’s identity, or set up a situation from whichthere is apparently no escape
a
. Several studies suggest that these critical stresses typically occur six toeighteen months before the diagnosis of cancer
b
. They are likely to generate feelings of despair, helplessness,and hopelessness. Because of these feelings, serious illness, and even death, may become consciously orunconsciously
c
acceptable as a potential solution.«The Simontons and other researchers have developed a psychosomatic model of cancer that showshow psychological and physical states work together in the onset of the disease. Although many details of thisprocess still need to be clarified, it has become clear that the emotional stress has two principal effects. Itsuppresses the body’s immune system and, at the same time, leads to hormonal imbalances that result in anincreased production of abnormal cells. Thus optimal conditions for cancer growth are created. Theproduction of malignant cells is enhanced precisely at a time when the body is least capable of destroyingthem...
 
In ancient Tibet, shamanistic and metashamanistic Bönpo medicine asserted that inorder to heal the patient it was necessary to heal the environment, for it was believed thatmany illness were caused by the subjective entities who animate—or who live in—naturalphenomena, as the result of a provocation in which the diseased person or other humanbeings (often intimately related to the diseased) had incurred
7
.In regard to «mental illness», the shamanistic approach is, also, radically differentfrom the «scientific» one. States that modern science deems «pathological» and which ittries to «heal» by means of countless inefficacious and destructive treatments wereintentionally induced by the shaman as means of initiation to a sacred reality, capable of leading the individual to a state of greater personal realization and communicativeintegration.In fact, in the last three decades a series of students of the human mind have insistedthat certain psychotic episodes could be spontaneous self-healing processes that are abortedby the environment in the family, the asylum and other institutions, and transformed intoprocesses of self-destruction, of which the former also contain an element
8
. As noted by
«...Lawrence LeShan studied more than five hundred cancer patients and identified the followingsignificant components in their life histories
d
: feelings of isolation, neglect, and despair during youth, withintense interpersonal relationships appearing difficult or dangerous; a strong relationship with a person orgreat satisfaction with a role in early adulthood, which becomes the center of the individual’s life; loss of therelationship or role, resulting in despair; internalizing of the despair to the extent that individuals are unable tolet other people know when they feel hurt, angry, or hostile. This basic pattern has been confirmed as typicalof cancer patients by a number of researchers.«The basic philosophy of the Simonton approach affirms that the development of cancer involves anumber of interdependent psychological and biological processes, that these processes can be recognized andunderstood, and that the sequence of events that leads to illness can be reversed to lead the organism back intoa healthy state. As in any holistic therapy, the first step toward initiating the healing cycle consists of makingpatients aware of the wider context of their illness. Establishing the context of cancer begins by by askingpatients to identify the major stresses occurring in their lives six to eighteen months prior to their diagnosis.The list of these stresses is then used as a basis for discussing the patients’ participation in the onset of theirdisease. The purpose of the concept of patient participation is not to evoke guilt, but rather to create the basisfor reversing the cycle of psychosomatic processes that led to the state of ill health.»
___________________________________________________________________
a) For example, situations such as those that Ronald Laing called «untenable», defined as those in which we cannot stayand, however, we cannot leave.b) See Simonton, Mathews-Simonton y Creighton,
Getting Well Again,
p. 57
et seq.
 c) Personally, I cannot accept the hypothesis of the «unconscious», unless it be understood as the result of that whichSartre called «bad faith». Therefore, I cannot accept this distinction between «consciously acceptable» e «unconsciouslyacceptable». Nonetheless, I agree that insisting that the illness is the result of a conscious decision that is then concealedcould produce a feeling of guilt that in turn could aggravate the illness or difficult healing.d) See Lawrence LeShan (1977),
You Can Fight for Your Life,
p. 49
et seq.
 
___________________________________________________________________________
7
See the work by John Meredith Reynolds quoted in the Bibliography and the various works by NamkhaiNorbu Rinpoche, as well as the transcriptions of his talks.
8
In
Perceval’s Narrative,
Gregory Bateson wrote about «schizophrenic» psychosis:«It would appear that once precipitated into psychosis the patient has a course to run. He is, as itwere, embarked upon a voyage of discovery which is only completed by his return to the normal world, towhich he comes back with insights different from those of the inhabitants who never embarked on such avoyage. Once begun, a schizophrenic episode would appear to have as definite a course as an initiationceremony—a death and a rebirth—into which the novice may have been precipitated by his family life or byadventitious circumstances, but which in its course is largely steered by endogenous process.«In terms of this picture, spontaneous remission is no problem. This is only the final and naturaloutcome of the total process. What needs to be explained is the failure of many who embark upon this voyage

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