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Earth Movements and Landforms (Internal Forces)

Earth Movements and Landforms (Internal Forces)

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Published by: swapnilamoda on Dec 27, 2009
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EARTH MOVEMENTS AND LANDFORMS (INTERNAL FORCES EARTH MOVEMENTS AND LANDFORMS (INTERNAL FORCES EARTH MOVEMENTS AND LANDFORMS (INTERNAL FORCES EARTH MOVEMENTS AND LANDFORMS (INTERNAL FORCES 
)
EARTHQUAKES
: are violent tremors of Earth’s crust.
CHIEF CAUSE 
: slipping of rock formation along faults and fractures in the earth’s crust. Thishappens due to constant change in volume and density of rocks due to intense temperature & pressurein the earth’s interior.
FOCUS/HYPOCENTER
: place of origin of an Earthquake inside the earth
 
Earth Movements
(powerful internal forcesoperating from within thecrust)
TECTONIC MOVEMENTS
(concentration of great internalforces within the earth raiseslocal areas upwards or causethem sinking downwards)Sudden Novements(noticed duringEarthquakes)Slow/Secular Movements(continue much longer ascompared to our lifespan,movements r relative 2eachothr ;-ve movement: landadvancing against sea and+vemovements: sea advancingagainst land
 VERTICAL MOVEMENTS
{rise or fall of earth surface ,causeUPLIFT(part of earth's crustrise in surrounding portion)&
SUBSIDEDNCE
(when sinking of apart of earth's crust relative tothe surrounding portions takesplace), these movements on largescale build up continents &palteaus}
HORIZONTALMOVEMENTS
(involve both the forces of compression and tensioonTENSION: responsible forbreaking of rock layers, termedas the formation of a "fault'COMPRESSION: leaeds to thebending of horzinatal layers of deep sendiments into shapeknown as a 'fold';folding & faulting lead to thebuilding up mountains)
 
EPICENTRE
: point on the Eearth’s surface, the maximum damGenerally, the greater the i
ISOSEISMIC LINE
: an imagiintensity of shaking produced by ea
MAGNITUDE
: a measure thon seismographs; measured in ter
INTENSITY
: depends on thethe Modified Mercalli Intensity Scal
AFTERSHOCKS
: earthquakelarger quake.
SEISMIC WAVES:
spread ouThe two main areas of eart
 
 Around the Pacifi .(more active)
 
From the middle
P Waves(primary/push)•waves are•they are thS Waves(secondary/shake)•waves areL Waves( surface/long)•waves travwaves.
rth’s surface vertically above the focus is called epige is caused at the Epicentre.ntensity of the shocks, the longer they last.ary line connecting all points on the surface of therthquake waves is the same.at depends on the seismic energy radiated by the qs of Richter scale.damage caused by the quake; does not have mathe is used.s that often occur during the days and months thatt from the seismic focus. These waves are of threequakes in the world are
c ocean along a belt of volcanoes known as thsia through the Mediterranean Sea to West I 
c
 
ompressional ; pass thruogh any mediume first waves to be recorded on a seismogram zdistortional waves; they cant be transmitted by liquidsel along the surface of the earth and are recorded after t
enter. On theearth where theuake as recordedematical basis butfollow someain types.
e RING OF FIRE dies
he P and S
 
LANDSLIDES
The term ‘landslides encompasses falling, toppling, sliding, flowing and subsidence of soil and rock materials under the influence of gravity and other factors.Slope instability may be caused by removal of lateral or underlying support mainly byriver erosion and road cuts, landfill dumping, faulting, tectonic movements or thecreation of artificial slopes by constructional activities.Large Landslides of Indiayear location1971 Alakananda(Uttaranchal)1993 Ratighat(Uttaranchal)1993 Niligiri( Tamil Nadu)
VOLCANO ACTION 
Rocks below the crust have very high temperature, but the great pressure upon these keepsthem in a semi –solid state. If the pressure weakens then some of the rocks become liquid – called
MAGMA
. Within crust, volcanic features are
BATHOLITHS
: a large mass of magma, which often formsthe root of mountain and is made of granite;
SILI:
a sheet of magma lying along the bedding plane –same may give rise to waterfalls and rapids when a mass of magma cuts across the bedding planes.Some dykes when exposed on the surface resist erosion and stand up as ridges or escarpments.Sometimes magma reaches the surface through aVENT(hole) orFISSURE(crack). When magma reaches the surface, it is calledLAVA.If lava comes through a vent, it builds up a volcano and if itemerges through a fissure. It builds up aLAVA PLATFORM OR LAVA FLOW.Volcanoes pass through three stages:
In the active stage, eruptions are frequent: Mt Etna (Italy), Cotopaxi (Ecuador)In dormant stage, eruptions become infrequent: Mt. Vesuvius (Italy)Volcanoes, which have not erupted in historic times, are called extinct: Mt Aconcagua(Argentine Andes)

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